Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic and Latino Americans (Spanish: Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; Portuguese: Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans of full or partial Spanish and/or Latin American background, culture, or family origin.[3][4][5][6] These demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino regardless of race.[7][8][9][10][11][12] As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 65.3 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States and its territories.

Hispanic and Latino Americans
Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos (Spanish)
Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos (Portuguese)
Proportion of Hispanic and Latino Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
Total population
Increase 65,329,087 (2020)
19.5% of the total US and Puerto Rico population (2020)
Increase 62,080,044 (2020)[1]
18.7% of the total US population (2020)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Related ethnic groups

"Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States of America. People who identify as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race, because similar to what occurred during the colonization and post-independence of the United States, Latin American countries had their populations made up of descendants of white European colonizers (in this case Portuguese and Spaniards), Native peoples of the Americas, descendants of African slaves, post-independence immigrants coming from Europe, Middle East and East Asia, as well as descendants of multiracial unions between these different ethnic groups.[13][14][15][16] As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics and Latinos form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages, the use of the Spanish and Portuguese languages being the most important of all. Most Hispanic and Latino Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Colombian, Guatemalan, Honduran, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Venezuelan or Nicaraguan origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic and Latino populations varies widely in different locations across the country.[14][17][18][19][20] In 2012, Hispanic Americans were the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans.[21]

Multiracial Hispanics (Mestizo) of Indigenous descent and Spanish descent are the second oldest ethnic groups (after the Native Americans) to inhabit much of what is today the United States.[22][23][24][25] Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Florida, all of which constituted part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, based in Mexico City. Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Hispanic immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Hispanic countries.[26]


The Spanish Harlem Orchestra in Manhattan. New York City is home to nearly 3 million Latino Americans, the largest Hispanic population of any city outside Latin America and Spain. Hispanic and Latino immigrants to New York originate from a broad spectrum of Latin American countries.

The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. "Hispanic" first came into popular use to refer to individuals with origins in Spanish-speaking countries after the Office of Management and Budget created the classification in 1977, as proposed by a subcommittee composed of three government employees, a Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican American.[27] The U.S. Census Bureau defines being Hispanic as being a member of an ethnicity, rather than being a member of a particular race and thus, people who are members of this group may also be members of any race.[14][28][29] In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Hispanics, 56% said that being Hispanic is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%).[28] Hispanics may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Hispanics agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino".[30] Hispanic and Latino people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history, and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.[31][32] The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is ambiguous to some people.[33] The US Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was primarily used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest. The 1970 United States census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.[34][35] This definition is consistent with the 21st century usage by the US Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. The Pew Research Center believes that the term "Hispanic" is strictly limited to Spain, Puerto Rico, and all countries where Spanish is the only official language whereas "Latino" includes all countries in Latin America (even Brazil regardless of the fact that Portuguese is its only official language), but it does not include Spain and Portugal.[3]

Storefronts at Lexington Avenue and 116th Street at East Harlem, Manhattan, also known as Spanish Harlem or "El Barrio"

The terms Latino and Latina are loan words from Italy and are ultimately from ancient Rome. In English, the term Latino is a condensed form of "latinoamericano", the Spanish term for a Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. This definition, as a "male Latin American inhabitant of the United States",[36] is the oldest definition which is used in the United States, it was first used in 1946.[36] Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.[37][38][39][40][41][42] In English, Italian Americans are not considered "Latino", as they are for the most part descended from immigrants from Europe rather than Latin America, unless they happen to have had recent history in a Latin American country.

Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino.[13]

The US ethnic designation Latino is abstracted from the longer form latinoamericano.[43] The element latino- is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in -o (i.e. an elemento compositivo) that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as franco- in francocanadiense 'French-Canadian', or ibero- in iberorrománico,[44] etc.).

The Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Little Spain on 14th Street in Manhattan, an important nucleus for many decades for the Spanish community in New York City[45]

The term Latinx (and similar neologism Xicanx) have gained some usage.[46][47] The adoption of the X would be "[r]eflecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o", in a complete break with the gender binary.[48] Among the advocates of the term LatinX, one of the most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as Latinos, whereas Latinas refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to Latinos, if even a single man joins this female group).[49] A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Hispanics use the term (mostly women), and only around 23% have even heard of the term. Of those, 65% said it should not be used to describe their ethnic group.[50]

Some have pointed out that the term "Hispanic" refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. "Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves", says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Hispanic studies at Northwestern University.[51]

According to 2017 American Community Survey data, a small minority of immigrants from Brazil (2%), Portugal (2%), and the Philippines (1%) self-identified as Hispanic.[11]



16th and 17th centuries

Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the Atlantic Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the Gulf of California. In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States.

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest church structure in the United States.

Also in 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican natives across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano, and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida. Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements including in the present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, El Paso, San Antonio, Tucson, Albuquerque, San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.[52]

Spanish settlements in the Americas were part of a broader network of trade routes that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The Spanish established trade connections with indigenous peoples, exchanging goods such as furs, hides, agricultural products, and manufactured goods. These trade networks contributed to the economic development of Spanish colonies and facilitated cultural exchange between different groups.

18th and 19th centuries

Painting of Bernardo de Gálvez at the siege of Pensacola by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring the present-day U.S states of California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, most of Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona, and parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Wyoming through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American War,[53] as well as Florida through the Adams-Onís treaty,[54] and the U.S territory of Puerto Rico through the Spanish-American War in 1898.[55] Many Latinos residing in those regions during that period gained U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, many long-established Latino residents faced significant difficulties post-citizenship. With the arrival of Anglo-Americans in these newly incorporated areas, Latino inhabitants struggled to maintain their land holdings, political influence, and cultural traditions.[56][57]

The discovery of gold in California in 1848 attracted people from diverse backgrounds, including Hispanic and Latino miners, merchants, and settlers. The Gold Rush led to a population boom and rapid economic growth in California, transforming the social and political landscape of the region.

Many Hispanic natives lived in the areas that the United States acquired, and a new wave of Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American immigrants had moved to the United States for new opportunities. This was the beginning of a demographic that would rise dramatically over the years.[58]

20th and 21st centuries

Dolores Huerta in 2009. Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', and women's rights. She was the first Hispanic inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, in 1993.[59][60]

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in 1965.[61] During the World Wars, Hispanic Americans and immigrants had helped stabilize the American economy from falling due to the industrial boom in the Midwest in states such as Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. While a percentage of Americans had fled their jobs for the war, Hispanics had taken their jobs in the Industrial world. This can explain why there is such a high concentration of Hispanic Americans in Metro Areas such as the Chicago-Elgin-Naperville, Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, and Cleveland-Elyria areas.[58]

Hispanic and Latino Americans were actively involved in the broader civil rights movement of the 20th century, advocating for equal rights, social justice, and an end to discrimination and segregation. Organizations such as the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the United Farm Workers (UFW) fought for the rights of Hispanic and Latino workers and communities.

Hispanic contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Hispanic Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated National Hispanic Heritage Month.[62][63] Hispanic Americans became the largest minority group in 2004.[64]

Hispanic and Latino Americans increasingly sought political representation and empowerment during the 20th century. The election of individuals such as Edward Roybal, Henry B. González, and Dennis Chávez to Congress marked significant milestones in Hispanic political representation. Additionally, the appointment of individuals like Lauro Cavazos and Bill Richardson to cabinet positions highlighted the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino leaders in government.

Hispanic and Latino Americans became the largest minority group in the United States, contributing significantly to the country's population growth. Efforts to preserve and promote Hispanic and Latino culture and heritage continued in the 21st century, including initiatives to support bilingual education, celebrate cultural traditions and festivals, and recognize the contributions of Hispanic and Latino individuals and communities to American society.


Hispanic Americans population pyramid in 2020
Proportion of Americans who are Hispanic in each US state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

As of 2020, Hispanics accounted for 19–20% of the US population, or 62–65 million people.[65] The US Census Bureau later estimated that Hispanics were under-counted by 5.0% or 3.3 million persons in the US census, which explains the 3 million range in the number above. In contrast, Whites were over-counted by about 3 million.[66] The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%).[67] The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%[68]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%).[67] Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States.[69] The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[70]

Geographic distribution

Proportion of Hispanic Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2014)[71]

Rank Metropolitan area Hispanic
Percent Hispanic
1 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 5,979,000 45.1%
2 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 4,780,000 23.9%
3 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 2,554,000 43.3%
4 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 2,335,000 36.4%
5 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 2,197,000 49.4%
6 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 2,070,000 21.8%
7 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 1,943,000 28.4%
8 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 1,347,000 30.1%
9 San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 1,259,000 55.7%
10 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 1,084,000 33.3%
11 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 1,008,000 21.9%

States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2021)[72]

Rank State/territory Hispanic population Percent Hispanic
1 Puerto Rico 3,249,043 99%
2 New Mexico 1,059,236 50%
3 Texas 11,857,387 40%
4 California 15,754,608 40%
5 Arizona 2,351,124 32%
6 Nevada 940,759 29%
7 Florida 5,830,915 26%
8 Colorado 1,293,214 22%
9 New Jersey 1,991,635 21%
10 New York 3,864,337 19%
11 Illinois 2,277,330 18%
12 United States Virgin Islands 18,514 17.4%

Of the nation's total Hispanic population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California or Texas.[73] In 2022, New York City and Washington, D.C. began receiving significant numbers of Latino migrants from the state of Texas, mostly originating from Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, and Honduras.[74]

Over half of the Hispanic population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. California and Texas have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Hispanics in the United States. The Northeast region is dominated by Dominican Americans and Puerto Ricans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area, Salvadoran Americans are the largest of Hispanic groups. Florida is dominated by Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans. In both the Great Lakes states and the South Atlantic states, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the West, South Central and Great Plains states.

National origin

Intermediate level international-style Latin dancing at the 2006 MIT ballroom dance competition. A judge stands in the foreground.
Population by national origin (2018)
(self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)[75]
Population %
Mexican 36,986,661 61.89%
Puerto Rican 9,033,381 15.12%
Cuban 2,363,532 3.95%
Salvadoran 2,306,774 3.86%
Dominican 2,082,857 3.49%
Colombian 2,023,341 3.38%
Guatemalan 1,524,743 2.55%
Honduran 963,930 1.61%
Ecuadorian 717,995 1.20%
Peruvian 684,345 1.15%
Venezuelan 484,445 0.81%
Nicaraguan 434,000 0.73%
Argentinian 286,346 0.48%
Panamanian 206,219 0.35%
Chilean 172,062 0.29%
Costa Rican 154,784 0.26%
Bolivian 116,646 0.20%
Uruguayan 60,013 0.10%
Paraguayan 25,022 0.04%
All other 2,000,000 3.3%
Total 62,000,000 100.0

As of 2018, approximately 61.9% of the nation's Hispanic population were of Mexican origin (see table). Another 15.1% were of Puerto Rican origin, and with about 3.9% each of Cuban and Salvadoran and about 3.5% Dominican origins. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Two thirds of all Hispanic Americans were born in the United States.[76]

There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Hispanic America rather than to English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Hispanic American national origin. In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not.[77]

In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to settlers from New Spain (Mexico), and sometimes Spain itself, in the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Native Americans, creating a mestizo population.[78] Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. Californios, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are Americans of Spanish and/or Mexican descent, with subgroups that sometimes call themselves Chicanos. Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct southwest Hispanic cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions.

Nuyoricans are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Prominent Nuyoricans include Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor, and singer Jennifer Lopez.

Race and ethnicity


Hispanics come from multi-racial and multi-ethnic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Hispanic can be from any race or mix of races. The most common ancestries are: Native American, European and African. Many also have colonial era New Christian Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[79] As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish) and cultural heritage, rather than a race.

Hispanic origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau.

On the 2020 United States census, 20.3% of Hispanics selected "White" as their race. This marked a large drop when compared to the 2010 United States census in which 53.0% of Hispanics identified as "White".[80] These Hispanics make up 12,579,626 people or 3.8% of the population.

Over 42% of Hispanic Americans identify as "some other race".[81] Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic.[82] These Hispanics make up 26,225,882 people or 42.2% of the Hispanic population.

Almost one-third of the "two or more races" respondents were Hispanics.[83] These Hispanics make up 20,299,960 people or 32.7% of the Hispanic population.

The largest numbers of Black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian and Puerto Rican communities.

In Puerto Rico, people have some Native Indigenous American ancestry as well as European and Canary Islander ancestry. There's also a population of predominantly African descent as well as populations of Native American descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of Iberian and Canary Islander ancestry, with some heritage from Native Indigenous Caribbean. There are also populations of Black Sub-Saharan ancestry and multi-racial people.[84][85][86] The race and culture of each Hispanic country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography.

Welch and Sigelman found, as of the year 2000, lower interaction between Latinos of different nationalities (such as between Cubans and Mexicans) than between Latinos and non-Latinos.[87] This is a reminder that while they are often treated as such, Latinos in the United States are not a monolith, and often view their own ethnic or national identity as vastly different from that of other Latinos.[87]

Racial Demographics of Hispanic Americans Between 1970 and 2020[88][89][90][91][92]
Race/Ethnic Group 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
Total Population 9,072,602 14,608,673 22,354,059 35,305,818 50,477,594 62,080,044
White alone 8,466,126 (93.3%) 8,115,256 (55.6%) 11,557,774 (51.7%) 16,907,852 (47.9%) 26,735,713 (53.0%) 12,579,626 (20.3%)
Black alone 454,934 (5.0%) 390,852 (2.7%) 769,767 (3.4%) 710,353 (2.0%) 1,243,471 (2.5%) 1,163,862 (1.9%)
Native American or Alaska Native alone 26,859 (0.3%) 94,745 (0.6%) 165,461 (0.7%) 407,073 (1.2%) 685,150 (1.4%) 1,475,436 (2.4%)
Asian or Pacific Islander alone - 166,010 (1.1%) 305,303 (1.4%) 165,155 (0.5%) 267,565 (0.5%) 335,278 (0.5%)
Some other race alone 124,683 (1.4%)[a] 5,841,810 (40.0%) 9,555,754 (42.7%) 14,891,303 (42.2%) 18,503,103 (36.7%) 26,225,882 (42.2%)
Two or more races [b] [b] [b] 2,224,082 (6.3%) 3,042,592 (6.0%) 20,299,960 (32.7%)

As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Hispanic population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were Millennials. This makes them more than half of the Hispanic population within the United States.[93]



Hispanic K–12 education

Westlake Theatre building, side wall mural of Jaime Escalante and Edward James Olmos

With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanics have had a considerable impact on the K–12 system. In 2011–12, Hispanics comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively.[94] Further research shows the Hispanic population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Hispanics will populate US schools.

Lauro Cavazos, US Secretary of Education from August 1988 to December 1990

The state of Hispanic education shows some promise. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs.[94] Second, Hispanics in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs.[94] Third, Hispanics' average NAEP math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years.[94] Finally, Hispanics were more likely than other groups, including White people, to go to college.[94]

However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups.[94] For instance, their average math and reading NAEP scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%.[94]

To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Hispanic "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies.[95] To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Hispanics not performing well academically.[96][97]

English language learners

Spanish speakers in the United States by counties in 2000

Currently, Hispanic students make up 80% of English language learners in the United States.[98] In 2008–2009, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade.[99] This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born.[99] In order to provide English instruction for Hispanic students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. Schools make demands when it comes to English fluency. There are test requirements to certify students who are non-native English speakers in writing, speaking, reading, and listening, for example. They take an ELPAC test, which evaluates their English efficiency. This assessment determines whether they are considered ELL students or not. For Hispanic students, being an ELL student will have a big impact because it's additional pressure to pass an extra exam apart from their own original classes. Furthermore, if the exam is not passed before they attend high school, the student will fall behind in their courses due to the additional ELD courses instead of taking their normal classes in that year.[100] However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language.[97] As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities.

Immigration status


There are more than five million ELLs from all over the world attending public schools in the United States and speaking at least 460 different languages.[100] Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, since the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants have received access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Hispanics. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin.[101] When non-native speakers arrive to the United States, the student not only enters a new country, language or culture, but they also enter a testing culture to determine everything from their placements to advancement into the next grade level in their education.[100] Moreover, Hispanics' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Hispanics outperform their later generational counterparts.[102] Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well.[103] This has major implications on their postsecondary futures.

Simultaneous bilingualism


There is a term “simultaneous bilinguals" it is emerged on the research from Guadalupe Valdez [104] she states that it is used by individuals who acquire two languages as a “first” language; that most American circumstantial bilinguals acquire their ethnic or immigrant language first and then acquire English. The period of acquisition of the second language is known as incipient bilingualism.

Hispanic higher education

In 2007, University of Texas at El Paso was ranked the number one graduate engineering school for Hispanics.[105]

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Hispanic groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cubans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexicans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than US-born Mexican Americans (13%) and US-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%).[106]

Hispanics make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at Yale University to 15% at Columbia University.[107] For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Hispanic.[108]

Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as University of Texas at El Paso (70% of students), Florida International University (63%), University of Miami (27%), and MIT, UCLA and UC-Berkeley at 15% each. At Stanford University, Hispanics are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Hispanic White people and Asians, at 18% of the student population.[109]

Hispanic university enrollments


While Hispanics study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated Hispanic-serving institutions, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI.[111]

Universities with the largest Hispanic undergraduate enrollment (2013)[112]
Rank University Hispanic enrollment % of student body
1 Florida International University 24,105 67%
2 University of Texas at El Paso 15,459 81%
3 University of Texas Pan American 15,009 91%
4 University of Texas at San Antonio 11,932 47%
5 California State University at Northridge 11,774 38%
6 California State University at Fullerton 11,472 36%
7 Arizona State University 11,465 19%
8 California State University at Long Beach 10,836 35%
9 California State University at Los Angeles 10,392 58%
10 University of Central Florida 10,255 20%
Universities with the largest Hispanic graduate enrollment (2013)
Rank University Hispanic enrollment % of student body
1 Nova Southeastern University 4,281 20%
2 Florida International University 3,612 42%
3 University of Southern California 2,358 11%
4 University of Texas Pan American 2,120 78%
5 University of Texas at El Paso 2,083 59%
6 CUNY Graduate Center 1,656 30%
7 University of New Mexico 1,608 26%
8 University of Texas at San Antonio 1,561 35%
9 University of Florida 1,483 9%
10 Arizona State University 1,400 10%
Hispanic student enrollment in university and college systems (2012–2013)
Rank University system Hispanic enrollment % of student body
1 California Community College System[113] 642,045 41%
2 California State University[114] 149,137 33%
3 Florida College System[115] 118,821 26%
4 University of Texas System[116] 84,086 39%
5 State University System of Florida[117] 79,931 24%
6 City University of New York[118] 77,341 30%
7 State University of New York[119] 43,514 9%
8 University of California 42,604 18%
9 Texas A&M University System[120][121] 27,165 25%
10 Nevada System of Higher Education[122] 21,467 21%
Ivy League[107] 11,562 10%




Flyers at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport wearing face masks on March 6, 2020, as the COVID-19 coronavirus spreads throughout the United States. Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among Black and Hispanic populations.[123][124][125]

As of 2016, life expectancy for Hispanic Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for White Americans (78.6 years).[126] Research on the "Hispanic paradox"—the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Hispanic Americans compared to White Americans, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic status—has been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US."[127] The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Hispanic health advantage is attributable to higher rates of return migration among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature.[128] A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Hispanics, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family (familism) contributed to this advantage.[129] Some scholars have suggested that the Hispanic mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among Hispanics relative to White people, although lower rates of smoking (and thus smoking-attributable mortality) among Hispanics may counteract this to some extent.[127]



As of 2017, about 19% of Hispanic Americans lack health insurance coverage, which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for Indigenous Americans and Alaska Natives.[130] In terms of extending health coverage, Hispanics benefited the most among US ethnic groups from the Affordable Care Act (ACA); among non-elderly Hispanics, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017.[130] Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Hispanic population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were US-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens.[130] (The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage).[130]

According to a 2013 study, Mexican women have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), Black (22.5%) and White (13.9%).[131] According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions.[131] Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill.

Mental health


Family separation

Rally to end family separation in Cleveland, Ohio

Some families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country, they may fear workplace raids where illegal immigrants are detained and deported.

Family separation puts US-born children, undocumented children and their illegal immigrant parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Children may experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children often develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Reunification may be difficult because of immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents.[132] Parents who leave their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms.[133] In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade.[133] Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses.[133] Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsen their depression. Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home.


Ana Navarro a political strategist and commentator immigrated as a result of the Sandinista revolution.

The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the United States illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Immigrants who broke these laws may not be allowed back into the country. Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the United States or gain legal status. These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants.[132] Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal.

Many illegal immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Undocumented families also do not trust government institutions and services. Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, illegal immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.[132] The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented.[134] This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance.


Beginning of Calle Ocho (eighth Street) in Little Havana of Miami, Florida, United States.

Despite the struggles Hispanic families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. They kept their faith strong and pray every day, hoping that God will keep their families safe.[134] Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences.<[132] Undocumented Hispanics also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Some Hispanics state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. They want their children to have a future and give them things they are not able to have themselves.[134] The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services.[132] Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the United States.[134] Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves.[134]


The section of the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro road that runs through US territory, a total of 646 kilometres (401 mi), was declared a National Historic Trail in October 2000

Many Hispanic families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Many Hispanics report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers ... that person is a danger. Many people will con them ... if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'".[134] These conditions lower the income that Hispanic families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Even if families are not separated, Hispanics are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing.

Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth.[132] Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in is often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development.[132] Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression.

Economic outlook

Median US household income by Nationality (2015)
Ethnicity Income
Spanish $60,640
Argentinian $60,000
Colombian $56,800
Cuban $56,000
Puerto Rican $54,500
Venezuelan $51,000
Chilean $51,000
Peruvian $47,600
Bolivian $44,400
Ecuadorian $44,200
Mexican $40,500
Honduran $40,200
Salvadoran $36,800
Guatemalan $36,800
Sources:[135][failed verification]

Median income


In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Hispanic Americans to be $50,486. This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Hispanic-origin households.[90]



According to the US Census, the poverty rate Hispanics was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Hispanics accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty.[90] In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Hispanic White Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty.[90]

Among the largest Hispanic groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%).[136]

Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate".[137] In the case of Hispanics, the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent.[98] Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Hispanic families can turn to social and community services as resources.

Cultural matters

Museum of Latin American Art.

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Hispanic Americans makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Many times, there are many cultural similarities between Hispanics from neighboring countries than from more distant countries, i.e. Spanish Caribbean, Southern Cone, Central America etc. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds.




Spanish Revival architecture in Santa Barbara, California.

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic Americans, Spanish is an important part of Hispanic culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanics adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish".[138][139] Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish.[140] Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States.[141][142]

Chicago Picasso as seen at Christkindlmarket.

Hispanics have revived the Spanish language in the United States, first brought to North America during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565.[143][144][145][146] Today, 90% of all Hispanics speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish.[147] Additionally, 2.8 million non-Hispanic Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million.[92]

With 40% of Hispanic Americans being immigrants,[148] and with many of the 60% who are US-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.[147]

American Spanish dialects

Spanish speakers
in the United States
Year Number of
Percent of
1980 11.0 million 5%
1990 17.3 million 7%
2000 28.1 million 10%
2010 37.0 million 13%
2012 38.3 million 13%
2020* 40.0 million 14%
*-Projected; sources:[138][149][150][151]

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. However, generally, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish or Chicano Spanish. A variety of Spanish native to the Southwest spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico and Colorado is known as Traditional New Mexican Spanish. One of the major distinctions of Traditional New Mexican Spanish is its use of distinct vocabulary and grammatical forms that make New Mexican Spanish unique amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in the East Coast is generally Caribbean Spanish and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Isleño Spanish, descended from Canarian Spanish, is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish.[92][152]

Heritage Spanish speakers tend to speak Spanish with near-native level phonology, but a more limited command of morphosyntax.[153] Hispanics who speak Spanish as a second language often speak with English accents.

Spanglish and English dialects

National Hispanic Cultural Center

Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish, a term for any mix of Spanish and English, is common in speaking. As they are fluent in both languages, speakers will often switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles and parts of New York City.[154]

Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano English. George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English.[155] An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic groups is called New York Latino English; Jennifer Lopez and Cardi B are examples of people who speak with the New York Latino dialect.

When speaking in English, American Hispanics may often insert Spanish tag and filler items such as tú sabes, este, and órale, into sentences as a marker of ethnic identity and solidarity. The same often occurs with grammatical words like pero.[156]


San Antonio Missions National Historical Park in Texas a UNESCO World Heritage Site comprises four missions, Mission San José, Mission San Juan, and Mission Espada. These missions are renowned for their architectural and cultural significance, reflecting the Spanish colonial heritage of the region.

According to a Pew Center study which was conducted in 2019, the majority of Hispanic Americans are Christians (72%),[157] Among American Hispanics, as of 2018–19, 47% are Catholic, 24% are Protestant, 1% are Mormon, less than 1% are Orthodox Christian, 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are unaffiliated.[157] The proportion of Hispanics who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Hispanics has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%).[157] Among Hispanic Protestant community, most are evangelical, but some belong to mainline denominations.[158] Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Hispanics; Evangelical Protestant Hispanics are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to biblical liberalism.[158] As of 2014, about 67% of Hispanic Protestants and about 52% of Hispanic Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as Pentecosal or charismatic Christians (in the Catholic tradition, called Catholic charismatic renewal).[159]

Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation Hispanic immigrants than it is among second and third-generation Hispanic immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or the unaffiliated camp.[160] According to Andrew Greeley, as many as 600,000 American Hispanics leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in Texas and Florida.[161] Hispanic Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members.[162]

Hispanics make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of Catholics in the United States,[163] although the number of American Hispanic priests is low relative to Hispanic membership in the church.[164] In 2019, José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops.[163]

Pew Research Center: Hispanic and Latino Religious Affiliation (2010–2022)[165]
Date Catholicism Unaffiliated Evangelical Protestant Non-Evangelical Protestant Other religion
2022 43 30 15 6 4
2021 46 25 14 7 5
2018 49 20 19 7 3
2016 54 17 15 7 5
2015 54 17 18 7 4
2014 58 12 14 7 7
2013 55 18 17 7 3
2012 58 13 15 6 3
2011 62 14 13 6 3
2010 67 10 12 5 3


Latino Cultural Center

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting US Hispanic consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.

Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Hispanics by reinforcing roots in the Hispanic world and the commonalities among Hispanics of varying national origin.[166][167]

The first Hispanic-American owned major film studio in the United States is based in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased Tyler Perry's former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios.[168][169]



Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media.[170] While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. The 1930s were boom years.[171] The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest.[172] American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Hispanic radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication Sponsor from the late 1940s to 1968.[173] Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Hispanic discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration.[174]



Notable Hispanic-oriented media outlets include:

  • CNN en Español, a Spanish-language news network based in Atlanta, Georgia;
  • ESPN Deportes and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks.
  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
    • TeleXitos an American Spanish language digital multicast television network owned by NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises.
    • Universo, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic audiences;
  • Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall;[175]
    • UniMás, an American Spanish language free-to-air television network owned by Univision Communications.
    • Fusion TV, an English television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with news and satire programming;
    • Galavisión, a Spanish-language television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with general entertainment programming;
  • Estrella TV, an American Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by the Estrella Media.
  • V-me, a Spanish-language television network;
    • Primo TV, an English-language cable channel aimed at Hispanic youth.;
  • Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • Fuse, a former music channel that merged with the Hispanic-oriented NuvoTV in 2015.
    • FM, a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015.
  • 3ABN Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois;
  • TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in Tustin, California;



Sports and music


Because of different cultures throughout the Hispanic world, there are various music forms throughout Hispanic countries, with different sounds and origins. Reggaeton and hip hop are genres that are most popular to Hispanic youth in the United States. Recently Latin trap, trap corridos, and Dominican dembow have gained popularity.[176][177][178]

Soccer is a common sport for Hispanics from outside of the Caribbean region, particularly immigrants. Baseball is a common among Caribbean Hispanics. Other popular sports include boxing, gridiron football, and basketball.


Mexican food has become part of the mainstream American market

Hispanic food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Mexican cuisine has become mainstream in American culture. Across the United States, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup. Tortilla chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines have continued to increase sales.[179] The avocado has been described as "America's new favorite fruit"; its largest market within the US is among Hispanic Americans.[180]

Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had at one of the city's numerous coffee shops.[181] The Cuban sandwich, developed in Miami, is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.[182]

Familial situations


Family life and values

Mexican American girls at a Quinceañera celebration in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Hispanic culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children.[183]

Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly Roman Catholic sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, first Holy Communions, quinceañeras, Confirmations, graduations and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic families.[184][185]

Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the United States among Hispanic families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanics expect their children to graduate university.[186][187]

Hispanic youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.[188]


Mariah Carey's father was of African-American and Afro-Venezuelan descent, while her mother is of Irish descent.
Anya Taylor is of Argentine of English and Scottish descent, the son of a British father and an Anglo-Argentine mother.[189][190][191] Her mother was born in Zambia to an English diplomat father, David Joy, and a Spanish mother from Barcelona.[192]

Hispanic Americans, like many immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Hispanic marriages in 2008.[193] The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of White people, 17.1% of Black people, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics.[194] The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity.[193]

Rosa Salazar is of Peruvian and French descent.[195]

In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who married out married non-Hispanic White people, 9% married non-Hispanic Black people, 5% non-Hispanic Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners.[193]

Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were White-Hispanic (compared to White-Asian at 14.4%, White-Black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups and multi-racial people).[194] Unlike those for marriage to Black people and Asians, intermarriage rates of Hispanics to White people do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of White/Hispanic couples are lower than those of White/White couples but higher than those of Hispanic/Hispanic couples. 23% of Hispanic men who married White women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic men who married a Hispanic woman. 33% of Hispanic women who married a White husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic women who married a Hispanic man.[194]

Attitudes among non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable, with 81% of White people, 76% of Asians and 73% of Black people "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic and an additional 13% of White people, 19% of Asians and 16% of Black people "being bothered but accepting of the marriage". Only 2% of White people, 4% of Asians, and 5% of Black people would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic.[193]

Hispanic attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to White people and 73% "being fine" with marriages to Black people. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a White and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a Black. Only 5% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Hispanic Black and 2% to a non-Hispanic White.[193]

Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic Black people varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with Black people, of all major Hispanic national groups, who also has the highest overall intermarriage rate among Hispanics.[186][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204][excessive citations] Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Hispanic White people, of all major Hispanic national groups, and are the most assimilated into White American culture.[205][206]

Cultural adjustment

Camila Cabello was born in Cuba. She moved between Havana and Mexico City before locating to Miami at age 5.

As Hispanic migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them".[207] The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Hispanic in the global sphere.



Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called latinidad. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Hispanics perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States."[207] This unites Hispanics as one, creating cultural kin with other Hispanic ethnicities.

Gender roles


In a 1998 study of Mexican Americans it was found that males were more likely to endorse the notion than men should be the sole breadwinners of the family, while Mexican American women did not endorse this notion.[208]

Hispanic woman washing, doing household chores

Prior to the 1960s countercultural movement, Mexican men often felt an exaggerated need to be the sole breadwinner of their families.[209] There are two sides to machismo, the man who has a strong work ethic and lives up to his responsibilities, or the man who heavily drinks and therefore displays acts of unpleasant behavior towards his family.[208]

Natalie Morales interviewing Jill Biden at the White House in 2016.

The traditional roles of women in a Hispanic community are of housewife and mother, a woman's role is to cook, clean, and care for her children and husband; putting herself and her needs last.[210] The typical structure of a Hispanic family forces women to defer authority to her husband, allowing him to make the important decisions, that both the woman and children must abide by.[211] In traditional Hispanic households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... [of] respectability, chastity, and family honor [as] valued by the [Hispanic] community".[212]

Migration to the United States can change the identity of Hispanic youth in various ways, including how they carry their gendered identities.[213] However, when Hispanic women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners.[213] The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle ("of [or from] the street"), transgressive, and sexually promiscuous.[213] A women's motive for pursuing an education or career is to prove she can care and make someone of herself, breaking the traditional gender role that a Hispanic woman can only serve as a mother or housewife, thus changing a woman's role in society.[214] Some Hispanic families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active".[215] Now there has been a rise in the Hispanic community where both men and women are known to work and split the household chores among themselves; women are encouraged to gain an education, degree, and pursue a career.[216]


Santa Fe Plaza

According to polling data released in 2022, 11% of Hispanic American adults identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. This is more than twice the rate of White Americans or African Americans. Over 20% of Hispanic Millennials and Gen Z claimed an LGBT identity.[217] The growth of the young Hispanic population is driving an increase of the LGBT community in the United States.[218] Studies have shown that Hispanic Americans are over-represented among transgender people in the United States.[219][220]

According to Gattamorta, et al. (2018), the socially constructed notion of machismo reinforces male gender roles in Hispanic culture, which can lead to internalized homophobia in Hispanic gay men and increase mental health issues and suicidal ideation.[221] However, according to Reyes Salinas, more recent research shows that there has been an explosive growth of LGBT self-identification among young Hispanic Americans, which may signal that the Hispanic attitudes towards LGBT have broken down.[217] According to Marina Franco, polling conducted in 2022 suggests that the Hispanic community in America is largely accepting of LGBT people and gay marriage, which is significant in light of the rapid growth of LGBT self-identification among Hispanics.[222]

Relations with other minority groups

Sunny Hostin American lawyer, columnist, journalist, and television host. Hostin was born to a Puerto Rican mother and an African-American father, and her maternal grandfather was of Sephardic Jewish descent.

As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations, especially the African-American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively Black areas.[223][224] There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence.[225][226]

  • A 2007 UCLA study reported that 51% of Black people felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African-Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American Black people and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the United States.[227][228]
  • A Pew Research Center poll from 2006 showed that Black people overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of Black people believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of Black people wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago (with its well-established Hispanic community); Washington, D.C. (with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and Raleigh-Durham (with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic community). The results showed that a significant proportion of Black people in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%).[229]
  • Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley Law School research brief, a recurring theme to Black/Hispanic tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor", which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by Black people). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Hispanic immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.[230]
  • A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of Black people believe that good relations exist between US Black people and Hispanics[231] while only 29% of Black people, 36% of Hispanics and 43% of White people, say Black–Hispanic relations are bad.[231]
  • In 2009, in Los Angeles County, Hispanics committed 30% of the hate crimes against Black victims and Black people committed 70% of the hate crimes against Hispanics.[232]


Current Hispanics in the United States government
Name Political party State First elected Ancestry
Supreme Court
Sonia Sotomayor 2009[c] Puerto Rican
Census Bureau
Robert Santos 2022 Mexican American
State Governors
Chris Sununu Republican New Hampshire 2016 Salvadoran, Cuban
Michelle Lujan Grisham Democratic New Mexico 2018 Hispanos of New Mexico
US Senate
Bob Menéndez Democratic New Jersey 2006 Cuban
Marco Rubio Republican Florida 2010 Cuban
Ted Cruz Republican Texas 2012 Cuban
Catherine Cortez Masto Democratic Nevada 2016 Mexican
Ben Ray Luján Democratic New Mexico 2020 Hispanos of New Mexico
Alex Padilla Democratic California 2021[d] Mexican
US House of Representatives
Nydia Velázquez Democratic New York 1992 Puerto Rican
Grace Napolitano Democratic California 1998 Mexican
Mario Díaz-Balart Republican Florida 2002 Cuban
Raúl Grijalva Democratic Arizona 2002 Mexican
Linda Sánchez Democratic California 2002 Mexican
Henry Roberto Cuellar Democratic Texas 2004 Mexican
John Garamendi Democratic California 2009 Spanish
Tony Cárdenas Democratic California 2012 Mexican
Joaquin Castro Democratic Texas 2012 Mexican
Raúl Ruiz Democratic California 2012 Mexican
Juan Vargas Democratic California 2012 Mexican
Pete Aguilar Democratic California 2014 Mexican
Ruben Gallego Democratic Arizona 2014 Colombian
Alex Mooney Republican West Virginia 2014 Cuban
Norma Torres Democratic California 2014 Guatemalan
Nanette Barragán Democratic California 2016 Mexican
Salud Carbajal Democratic California 2016 Mexican
Lou Correa Democratic California 2016 Mexican
Adriano Espaillat Democratic New York 2016 Dominican
Vicente González Democratic Texas 2016 Mexican
Brian Mast Republican Florida 2016 Mexican
Darren Soto Democratic Florida 2016 Puerto Rican
Jimmy Gomez Democratic California 2017 Mexican
Veronica Escobar Democratic Texas 2018 Mexican
Chuy García Democratic Illinois 2018 Mexican
Sylvia Garcia Democratic Texas 2018 Mexican
Mike Levin Democratic California 2018 Mexican
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Democratic New York 2018 Puerto Rican
Mike Garcia Republican California 2020 Mexican
Carlos A. Giménez Republican Florida 2020 Cuban
Tony Gonzales Republican Texas 2020 Mexican
Teresa Leger Democratic New Mexico 2020 Mexican
Nicole Malliotakis Republican New York 2020 Cuban
Maria Elvira Salazar Republican Florida 2020 Cuban
Ritchie Torres Democratic New York 2020 Puerto Rican
Yadira Caraveo Democratic Colorado 2022 Mexican
Greg Casar Democratic Texas 2022 Mexican
Lori Chavez-DeRemer Republican Oregon 2022 Mexican
Juan Ciscomani Republican Arizona 2022 Mexican
Monica De La Cruz Republican Texas 2022 Mexican
Anthony D'Esposito Republican New York 2022 Puerto Rican
Maxwell Frost Democratic Florida 2022 Cuban
Robert Garcia Democratic California 2022 Peruvian
Anna Paulina Luna Republican Florida 2022 Mexican
Rob Menendez Democratic New Jersey 2022 Cuban
Marie Gluesenkamp Perez Democratic Washington 2022 Mexican
Delia Ramirez Democratic Illinois 2022 Guatemalan
Andrea Salinas Democratic Oregon 2022 Mexican
Gabe Vasquez Democratic New Mexico 2022 Mexican
The Congressional Hispanic Caucus, circa 1984
Congressional Hispanic Conference members met with Attorney General Al Gonzales

Political affiliations

Delegate Joseph Marion Hernández of the Florida Territory, elected in 1822, the first Hispanic American to serve in the United States Congress in any capacity
Republican politician Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, elected in 1928, the first Mexican-American and first Latino United States senator.
Democratic politician Henry B. González, elected in 1961, served 37 years in the House, the longest-serving Hispanic American in congressional history.

Hispanics differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%)[233] either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans.[233] This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. While traditionally a key Democratic Party constituency at-large,[234] beginning in the early 2010s, Hispanics have begun to split[235] between the Democrats and the Republican Party.[236][237][238] In a 2022 study, it was found that 64% of Latinos surveyed had positive attitudes towards President Obama's executive actions on immigration, which was notably four percentage points lower than that of non-Hispanic Black respondents. It was also noted that support for undocumented immigrants was lowest among Latinos living in developing 'bedroom communities' or newly built suburbs designed for commuters. This was also the case for Latinos of affluent income levels, however they were still most likely to display a positive attitude towards undocumented immigrants, especially when compared to their non-Hispanic White counterparts.[239]

Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall.

Some political organizations associated with Hispanic Americans are League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation and the National Institute for Latino Policy.

Political impact


The United States has a population of over 60 million of Hispanic Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Hispanics have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.[240][241][242][243]

Elections of 1996–2006

U.S. President George W. Bush announces Alberto Gonzales nomination as the Attorney General.
Barbara Vucanovich the first Hispanic woman elected to the United States House of Representatives, in which she served representing Nevada.

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics backed President Bill Clinton. In 2000, the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 54–44 against Bush.[244] Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Hispanics voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Hispanics by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Hispanics were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Hispanics (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin.

In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic immigration and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Hispanics for the first time split evenly.

The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Hispanic politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Hispanic voters; majority-Hispanic counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.

Elections 2008–2012

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen became the first Cuban American Hispanic in congress and first Hispanic chair of the Congressional Hispanic Conference.

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary, Hispanics participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.[245] Pundits discussed whether Hispanics would not vote for Barack Obama because he was African-American.[225] Hispanics voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama.[246] Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) White people.[246] Obama defeated Clinton.

In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain, Hispanics supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 Gallup tracking poll.[247] This was higher than expected, since McCain had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in Panama to parents who were serving in the US Navy, but raised in the United States).[248] However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Hispanics.[249][better source needed] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal.[250][better source needed]

Susana Martinez, first elected Hispanic woman Governor in the United States. She is of Mexican descent.

In the general election, 67% of Hispanics voted for Obama.[251][252] with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Virginia, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Hispanics also contributed to his carrying Florida's Hispanics with 57% of the vote.[251][253]

While employment and the economy were top concerns for Hispanics, almost 90% of Hispanic voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.[254] Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 had damaged the party's appeal to Hispanics, especially in swing states such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico.[254] In a Gallup poll of Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans.[247]

Hispanics voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote.[255][256] Some Hispanic leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences[257] and "the hand of providence"[258][259] help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador.[260] A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist,[259][261] as did American political scientist Angelo Falcón, president of the National Institute of Latino Policy.[262] Mitt Romney's father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico.

Elections 2014–2022


"More convincing data" from the 2016 United States presidential election[263] from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain).[264] Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's.[265]

On June 26, 2018, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a millennial, won the Democratic primary in New York's 14th congressional district covering parts of The Bronx and Queens in New York City, defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election season and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress.[266][267] She is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America and has been endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and individuals.[268] According to a Pew Research Center report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Hispanics are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. A record 32 million Hispanics were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. On September 15, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announced his intent to nominate and appoint Eduardo Verastegui, to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention.[269]

Hispanic communities across the United States were long held as a single voting bloc, but economic, geographic and cultural differences show stark divides in how Hispanic Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Hispanics helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (along with smaller populations such as Nicaraguan Americans and Chilean Americans); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti-socialism message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Mexican Americans in Arizona and the COVID-19 pandemic (Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States).[270] Many Latino voters in Nevada are members of the Culinary Union Local 226 and supported Biden based on Right-to-work standards.[271] The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the "Hispanic vote" as a whole is more talked about instead of particular communities within it, such as Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. In Texas like in Arizona and Nevada, the Hispanic community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Hispanic. Biden did win the Hispanic vote in those states. But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Hispanic voters backed Trump in several heavily Hispanic border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Hispanic vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News.[272] Recognizing Hispanics as a population that can not only make a difference in swing states like Arizona, Nevada, Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, the number of Hispanic eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins. In 1984, 37 percent of Hispanics voted for Ronald Reagan and 40 percent voted for George W. Bush in 2004.

Year Candidate of
the plurality
% of
1980 Jimmy Carter Democratic 56% Lost
1984 Walter Mondale Democratic 61% Lost
1988 Michael Dukakis Democratic 69% Lost
1992 Bill Clinton Democratic 61% Won
1996 Bill Clinton Democratic 72% Won
2000 Al Gore Democratic 62% Lost
2004 John Kerry Democratic 58% Lost
2008 Barack Obama Democratic 67% Won
2012 Barack Obama Democratic 71% Won
2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic 65% Lost
2020 Joe Biden Democratic 63% Won

In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Hispanic voters, Biden kept 53% of the Hispanic vote and Trump 45%. According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Hispanics voted for Trump.[273]

Subsections of Hispanic voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in South Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for socialism, the party of Fidel Castro's government that many of their families fled. Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's relief effort after Hurricane Maria, or regarding how it is taxed.[51]

Nationwide, Hispanics cast 16.6 million votes in 2020, an increase of 30.9% over the 2016 presidential election.[274]

After representative Filemon Vela Jr. resigned, Mayra Flores won a special election to succeed him, she won the election to the United States House of Representatives in June 2022.[275][276] She was the first Mexican-born woman to serve in the House, but would go on to lose in the 2022 General election to Democrat Vicente Gonzalez.[276][277][278]

Notable contributions

Julie Chavez Rodriguez the granddaughter of American labor leader, Cesar Chavez and American labor activist Helen Fabela Chávez became the director of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs in 2021.

Hispanic Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, film, literature, sports, business and finance, and science.[279]

Arts and entertainment


In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award was created. It is a distinction given to Hispanic performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. The number of Latin nominees at the Grammy Awards lag behind. Talking to People magazine ahead of music's biggest night in 2021, Grammy nominees J Balvin and Ricky Martin reflected on what it is mean to continue to represent Hispanics at awards shows like the Grammys. Martin, who served as a pioneer for the "Latin crossover" in the '90s told "When you get nominated, it's the industry telling you, 'Hey Rick, you did a good job this year, congratulations.' Yes, I need that", the 49-year-old says. "When you walk into the studio, you say, 'This got a Grammy potential.' You hear the songs that do and the ones that don't. It's inevitable." Like Selena Gomez tapping into her roots, the influence Hispanics and reggaetón are having on the mainstream is undeniable.[280]



There are many Hispanic American musicians that have made a significant impact on the music industry and achieved fame within the United States and internationally, such as Christopher Rios better known by his stage name Big Pun, Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato, Fergie, Pitbull, Victoria Justice, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Gloria Estefan, Héctor Lavoe, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Miguel, Carlos Santana, Christina Aguilera, Bruno Mars, Mariah Carey, Jerry García, Dave Navarro, Santaye, Elvis Crespo, Romeo Santos, Tom Araya, Tego Calderón, Prince Royce, Don Omar, Eddie Palmieri, Wisin & Yandel, Melanie Martinez, Mariah Angeliq, That Mexican OT, MC Magic, TKA, La India, George Lamond, Sa-Fire, Cynthia, Lisa Lisa, Julieta Venegas, Intocable, Marisela, Pepe Aguilar, Jon Secada, Chayanne, Daddy Yankee, Lil Suzy, Judy Torres, Nayobe, Willie Colón, Jenni Rivera, Frankie J, Larry Hernandez, Arcángel, De la Ghetto, Giselle Bellas, Juan Luis Guerra, Residente, Anuel AA, Ozuna, Lil Pump, 6ix9ine, Becky G, Ivy Queen, Cardi B, Kali Uchis, Bad Bunny, Rauw Alejandro, all of the members of all-female band Go Betty Go, Camila Cabello, two members of girl group Fifth Harmony: Lauren Jauregui and Ally Brooke, and two members of the nu metal band Nonpoint.

Hispanic music imported from Cuba (chachachá, mambo, and rhumba) and Mexico (ranchera and mariachi) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Examples of artists include Celia Cruz, who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career. Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994.

Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago, who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra, "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano; and Mariah Carey’s 1994 song "All I Want for Christmas Is You", which is the best-selling holiday song by a female artist. Miguel del Aguila wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations.

In 1986, Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, Billboard initiated the Top Latin Albums which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States.[281] Similarly, the Recording Industry Association of America incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish.[282]

In 1989, Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys".[283][284] In 2000, the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS) established the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese.[285] Unlike The Recording Academy, LARAS extends its membership internationally to Hispanophone and Lusophone communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly the Iberian Peninsula.[286] Becky G won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the AMAs in 2020.[287] For the 63rd Annual Grammy Awards, the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: the category Latin Pop Album has been renamed Best Latin Pop or Urban Album, while Latin Rock, Urban or Alternative Album has been renamed Best Latin Rock or Alternative Album.

Film, radio, television, and theatre


American cinema has often reflected and propagated negative stereotypes towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities.[288] For example, Hispanics are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Hispanic macho or the Hispanic vixen, gang members, (illegal) immigrants, or entertainers.[289] However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate Chicano oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities".[290] Filmmakers like Edward James Olmos and Robert Rodriguez were able to represent the Hispanic American experience like none had on screen before, and actors like Hilary Swank, Michael Peña, Jordana Brewster, Ana de Armas, Jessica Alba, Natalie Martinez and Jenna Ortega have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and Patricia Riggen have been given applier narratives. Portrayal in films of them include La Bamba (1987), Selena (1997), The Mask of Zorro (1998), Nothing like the Holidays (2008), Dora and the Lost City of Gold (2019), Being the Ricardos (2001), Father of the Bride (2022) and Josefina López's Real Women Have Curves, originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002.[290]

Hispanics have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the film industry. Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer (the first Hispanic actor to win an acting Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac), Auliʻi Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera, Raul Julia, Rosie Perez, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Aubrey Plaza, Jennifer Lopez, Joaquin Phoenix and Benicio del Toro. Of Mexican origin: Emile Kuri (the first Hispanic to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949), Ramon Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Anthony Quinn, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Adrian Grenier, Jay Hernandez, Salma Hayek, Danny Trejo, Jessica Alba, Tessa Thompson, and Kate del Castillo. Of Cuban origin: Cesar Romero, Mel Ferrer, Andy García, Cameron Diaz, María Conchita Alonso, William Levy, and Eva Mendes. Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez and Zoe Saldana. Of partial Spanish origin: Rita Hayworth, Martin Sheen. Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page (of Salvadoran origin), Fernando Lamas, Carlos Thompson, Alejandro Rey and Linda Cristal (of Argentine origin), Raquel Welch (of Bolivian origin), John Leguizamo (of Colombian origin), Oscar Isaac (of Guatemalan origin), John Gavin and Pedro Pascal (both of Chilean origin).

In stand-up comedy, Cristela Alonzo, Anjelah Johnson, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias and others are prominent.

Mario Lopez actor, television host, and entertainment personality known for his roles in "Saved by the Bell" and as a host on various television programs.

Some of the Hispanic actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Charo, Jencarlos Canela, Christian Serratos, Carlos Pena Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Ricardo Antonio Chavira, Jacob Vargas, America Ferrera, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, Hector Elizondo, Mario Lopez, America Ferrera, Karla Souza, Diego Boneta, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, Isabella Gomez, Justina Machado, Tony Plana Stacey Dash, and Charlie Sheen. Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards and Michael Jackson's memorial service.

Hispanics are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[291] Together with numerous Hispanic civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Hispanic on any of their new prime time series that year.[292] This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic talent and other staff in all of the networks.

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.

The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards was criticized by Hispanics; there were no major nominations for Hispanic performers, despite the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. While there was a record number of Black nominees, there was only one individual Hispanic nomination. Hispanic representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees.[293][294] When the Los Angeles Times reported the criticism using the term "Black", it was itself criticized for erasing Afro-Hispanics, a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood.[295] John Leguizamo boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Hispanic nominees.[296]



In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, Narciso Rodriguez, Manuel Cuevas, Maria Cornejo,[297] among others. Christy Turlington, Lais Ribeiro, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models.


Rita de Acosta Lydig.

Notable Hispanic artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat, Judith Baca, Carmen Herrera, Patssi Valdez, Gronk, Luis Jiménez, Félix González-Torres, Ana Mendieta, Ester Hernandez, Joe Shannon, Richard Serra, Abelardo Morell, Bill Melendez, María Magdalena Campos Pons, Sandra Ramos, Myrna Báez,Soraida Martinez and Yolanda Gonzalez.

Business and finance

Real estate developer Jorge M. Pérez.

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.[62]

Hispanic business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.[298] Advertising Mexican-American magnate Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.[299] Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team.

There are several Hispanics on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans. Alejandro Santo Domingo and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in SABMiller, now merged with Anheuser-Busch InBev. The brothers are ranked No. 132 and are each worth $4.8bn.[300] Jorge Perez founded and runs The Related Group. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami.[301][302] He is ranked No. 264 and is worth $3bn.[300]

The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is Goya Foods, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.[303] Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[304] and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[305][306] Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Hispanic in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.

Since 2021, magazine Hispanic Executive has released a list of 30 under 30 executives in the United States.[307] Members include financial analyst Stephanie Nuesi, fashion entrepreneur Zino Haro, and Obama scholar Josue de Paz.[308]

Government and politics


As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Hispanic origin.[309]

In the House of Representatives, Hispanic representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former representatives. Current representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez, Nydia Velázquez, Xavier Becerra, Lucille Roybal-Allard, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Díaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera Beutler, Raul Labrador and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya and Ken Salazar. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic members Bob Menendez, a Democrat and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans.[310]

Numerous Hispanics hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.[311] Current Hispanic Governors include Republican Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Hispanic woman governor in the history of the United States.[312] Former Hispanic governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco and Bob Martinez.

Secretary Julian Castro candidate for US President and his twin brother Representative Joaquin Castro.

Since 1988,[313] when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education, the first Hispanic United States Cabinet member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Rosa Rios is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Hispanic women.

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic origin.

In 2022, Robert Santos became the first Director of the U.S. Census Bureau of Hispanic origin (Mexican American).[314]

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.

Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Hispanics and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation".[315]

Literature and journalism

George Santayana was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Jorge Majfud is a professor, essayist, and novelist
Jorge Ramos has won eight Emmy Awards.
José Díaz-Balart.

Writers and their works




Political strategists


Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point")

Hispanics have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.[318][319][320] 11% to 13% military personnel now are Hispanics and they have been deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere.[321] Hispanics have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). The following is a list of some notable Hispanics in the military:

American Revolution


American Civil War

David Farragut, first full admiral in the US Navy
Diego Archuleta, first Hispanic to reach the military rank of Brigadier General
  • Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history.[322][323]
  • Rear Admiral Cipriano Andrade – Mexican Navy rear admiral who fought for the Union. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
  • Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Hispanic to reach the military rank of brigadier general. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.[324]
  • Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.[325]
  • Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg.[326]
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army.[327]
  • Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army.[326]
  • Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West.[327]
  • Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys.[326][328]
  • Captain Rafael Chacón – Mexican American leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers.[329]
  • Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in Texas.[327]
  • Lieutenant Augusto RodriguezPuerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C., and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork.[330]
  • Lola Sánchez – Cuban-born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing".
  • Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War.

World War I


World War II

Pedro del Valle – first Hispanic to reach the rank of lieutenant general.
Carmen Contreras-Bozak – first Hispanic women to serve in the Women's Army Corps.

Korean War

Modesto Cartagena, most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history.

Cuban Missile Crisis


Vietnam War


After the Vietnam War

Richard E. Cavazos, first Hispanic four-star general.
Antonia Novello, first woman and first Hispanic to serve as Surgeon General.

Medal of Honor


The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace and Maximo Yabes.

National intelligence


Science and technology


Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist of Spanish descent, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster.[344] F. J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.[345] Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa is the director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in atomic physics in 2013.

Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.[346] Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry.[347] Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Hispanic president of the American Public Health Association.

Franklin Chang-Diaz NASA astronaut and physicist known for his expertise in plasma propulsion systems.

Some Hispanics have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts:[348] Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Hispanic NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and director of Mars exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

Olga D. González-Sanabria won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station power system. Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, José M. Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts.



Hispanic and Latino American women in sports

Monica Puig at the 2013 French Open

Hispanic and Latino American women have left an indelible mark on sports in the US, showcasing exceptional talent, resilience, and cultural diversity. Some notable figures include Monica Puig, tennis player hailing from Puerto Rico, Monica Puig achieved historic success by winning the gold medal in women's singles at the 2016 Rio Olympics, marking Puerto Rico's first-ever Olympic gold medal in any sport. Laurie Hernandez, gymnastics athlete also of Puerto Rican descent, Laurie Hernandez secured a gold medal with the US gymnastics team at the 2016 Rio Olympics and added a silver medal on the balance beam, captivating audiences with her grace and skill. Jessica Mendoza, softball/baseball] of Mexican heritage, is celebrated as a former professional softball player and Olympic gold medalist (2004). She continues to inspire as a groundbreaking baseball analyst for ESPN, breaking barriers in sports broadcasting. Giselle Juarez, softball player of Mexican descent, emerged as a standout pitcher, leading the University of Oklahoma to victory in the 2021 NCAA Women's College World Series championship, showcasing her dominance on the mound. Linda Alvarado, made history as the first Hispanic woman to co-own a Major League Baseball team, the Colorado Rockies, breaking barriers and paving the way for diversity in professional sports ownership. Brenda Villa, water polo of Mexican descent, is a trailblazer in women's water polo, earning four Olympic medals (gold in 2012, silver in 2000 and 2008, bronze in 2004) and inspiring a generation with her leadership and achievements. Nancy Lopez, golf a Hall of Fame golfer of Mexican heritage, amassed an impressive 48 LPGA Tour victories, including three major championships, during her illustrious career, solidifying her legacy as one of golf's all-time greats. Sofia Huerta, player of Mexican and American descent, has excelled in professional soccer, showcasing her versatility and skill as a midfielder and forward in the NWSL and internationally with Mexico's national team, inspiring young athletes with her talent and determination.

Hispanic and Latino American men in sports



Tony Romo, NFL quarterback known for his career with the Dallas Cowboys and current role as a popular football analyst for CBS Sports.

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked No. 17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Ted Hendricks, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics in the National Football League (NFL).


Alex Rodriguez baseball player who achieved iconic status in the MLB, notably with the Seattle Mariners and New York Yankees, before becoming a prominent television analys.

Hispanics have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player Esteban Bellán being the first (1873).[349][350] The large number of Hispanic American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Sammy Sosa, Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Adolfo Luque, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrián González, Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Juan Marichal, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Miguel Angel Gonzalez (the first Hispanic Major League manager),[351][352] Al López, Ozzie Guillén and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Hispanics in the MLB Hall of Fame include Roberto Alomar, Luis Aparicio, Rod Carew, Orlando Cepeda, Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Tony Pérez, Iván Rodríguez, Ted Williams, Reggie Jackson, Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martinez and Roberto Clemente. Afro-Hispanic players Martin Dihigo, Jose Mendez and Cristóbal Torriente are Hispanic Hall of Famers who played in the Negro leagues.[353]


Puerto Rican NBA All-star Carmelo Anthony.

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic and the first non-Black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.



Tennis players includes legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig.[354]


Carlos Bocanegra soccer player who served as the captain of the United States national team and played professionally in Major League Soccer and Europe.

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across the Spanish-speaking world, and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans.[355][356][357] Association football players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa, Roger Espinoza and Carlos Bocanegra.



Swimmers Ryan Lochte (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals)[358] and Dara Torres (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry,[359] have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games.[360] Maya DiRado, of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals.[354]

Other sports

De La Hoya "The Golden Boy," is a former professional boxer and Olympic gold medalist who became a prominent figure in boxing both inside the ring and as a promoter

Boxing's first Hispanic American world champion was Solly Smith. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, Andy Ruiz Jr. and Mikey Garcia.

Lee Trevino retired professional golfer who won numerous PGA Tour events, including several major championships

Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Tony Ferguson, Jorge Masvidal, Kelvin Gastelum, Henry Cejudo and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts.

In 1991, Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL). He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. In 1999, Scott Gomez won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.[361]

Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports.

In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games.[354]

In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Hulk Hogan, Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez and executive Vickie Guerrero.

Anti-Latino sentiment

President Trump and Senator John Cornyn while they are visiting survivors of the 2019 El Paso shooting, which was an anti-Latino terrorist attack in El Paso, Texas

In countries where the majority of the population is descended from immigrants, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the forms of nativism, racism, religious intolerance and xenophobia.[362] Throughout US history, anti-Latino sentiment has existed to varying degrees at different times, and it was largely based on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism (see Anti-Catholicism in the United States), xenophobia (see Xenophobia in the United States), economic and social conditions in Hispanic America, and opposition to the use of the Spanish language.[363][364][365][366] In 2006, Time magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily as a result of anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[367] According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Hispanic hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Hispanic population, the number of hate crimes which were committed against Hispanics almost doubled.[368]

In 2009, the FBI reported that 4,622 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Hispanic, comprising 70.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the highest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-Black, 17.9% of them were anti-homosexual, 14.1% of them were anti-Jewish, and 8.3% of them were anti-White.[369]


Protesters hold various signs and banners at a Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) rally in San Francisco.

It is reported that 31% of Hispanics have reported personal experiences with discrimination whilst 82% of Hispanics believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the United States.[132] The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. The immigrant experience is associated with lower self-esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. It is also known that more time which is spent living in the United States is associated with increased feelings of distress, depression and anxiety.[132] Like many other Hispanic groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. An example of this stigmatization occurred after 9/11, when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Hispanic Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker.[370]

See also


Places of settlement in United States:



Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics:



  1. ^ Includes Asian Americans.
  2. ^ a b c The 1970, 1980, and 1990 US censuses did not allow for the selection of multiple races.
  3. ^ As a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Sotomayor was nominated by Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate, not elected.
  4. ^ After the election of California senator Kamala Harris as vice president, Padilla was appointed senator by California Governor Gavin Newsom to fill the seat vacancy.


  1. ^ a b "Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". U.S. Census Bureau. August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  2. ^ Krogstad, Jens M.; Alvarado, Joshua & Mohamed, Besheer (April 13, 2023). "Among U.S. Latinos, Catholicism Continues to Decline But Is Still the Largest Faith". Pew Research Center. Retrieved August 14, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c Krogstad, Jens M.; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Lopez, Mark H. (September 23, 2021). "Who is Hispanic?". Pew Research Center. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  4. ^ Fraga, Luis & Garcia, John A. (2010). Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5.
  5. ^ Fisher, Nancy L. (1996). Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3.
  6. ^ Holden, Robert H. & Villars, Rina (2012). Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3.
  7. ^ "49 CFR Part 26". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved October 22, 2012. 'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race.
  8. ^ "US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2012. SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Mexico.
  9. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
  10. ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  11. ^ a b Lopez, Mark Hugo; Krogstad, Jens M. & Passel, Jeffrey S. (November 11, 2019). "Who Is Hispanic?". Pew Research Center.
  12. ^ Tello, Yvette (January 8, 2024). "Hispanic with a Non-Spanish Last Name". La Prensa Texas. Retrieved June 8, 2024.
  13. ^ a b Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". White House Archives. Archived from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2012 – via National Archives.
  14. ^ a b c Grieco, Elizabeth M. & Cassidy, Rachel C. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
  15. ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino origin by specific origin". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  16. ^ "CIA World Factbook – Field Listing: Ethnic groups". Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  17. ^ "T4-2007. Hispanic or Latino By Race". 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau.
  18. ^ "B03002. Hispanic or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau.
  19. ^ Tafoya, Sonya (December 6, 2004). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
  20. ^ Maciel, David (February 26, 2000). The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico. UNM Press. ISBN 978-0-826321992 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ "Hispanics Were Not The Fastest-Growing Minority Group Last Year". MarketingCharts. July 23, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  22. ^ "Oldest U.S. City". Infoplease.com. Retrieved November 21, 2008.
  23. ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. Encyclopedia Americana Corp. 1919. p. 151.
  24. ^ "Chronology of Mexican American History". University of Houston. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2008.
  25. ^ "Cuartocentennial of Colonization of New Mexico". New Mexico State University. Archived from the original on November 15, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2008.
  26. ^ "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  27. ^ Bernstein, David E. (2022). Classified: The Untold Story of Racial Classification in America. New York City: Bombardier Books. ISBN 978-1-637581735.
  28. ^ a b Gonzales-Barrera, Ana & Lopez, Mark Hugo (June 15, 2015). "Is being Hispanic a matter of race, ethnicity or both?". Pew Research Center.
  29. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 18, 2007. Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may also be members of any race. People in each racial group may either be Hispanic or they may not be Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic/Latino.
  30. ^ Lopez, Mark Hugo (February 19, 2016). "Is speaking Spanish necessary to be Hispanic? Most Hispanics say no". Pew Research Center.
  31. ^ "Mexican America: Glossary". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Note: It defines "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish-speaking roots in the Americas and Spain, and "Latino" as meaning those from both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking cultures in Latin America.
  32. ^ Ramirez, Deborah A. (1993). "Excluded Voices: The Disenfranchisement of Ethnic Groups From Jury Service". Wisconsin Law Review: 761. [T]he term 'Latino' ... may be more inclusive than the term 'Hispanic.'
  33. ^ Austin, Grace (August 17, 2012). "Hispanic or Latino: Which is Correct?". Profiles in Diversity. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  34. ^ Cobos, Rubén (2003). "Introduction". A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish (2nd ed.). Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press. p. ix. ISBN 0-89013-452-9.
  35. ^ Office of Management and Budget (October 30, 1997). "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice". The White House. Archived from the original on February 8, 2004. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  36. ^ a b "Latino". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  37. ^ Ready, Timothy (1991). Latino Immigrant Youth: Passages from Adolescence to Adulthood. Taylor & Francis. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8153-0057-1.
  38. ^ Thurman, Christie (September 21, 2010). The Effects of Multicultural Dance on Self-Determination of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (MA). California State University, Chico. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  39. ^ Anderson, Kevin (October 18, 2008). "The complexity of race in New Mexico". The Guardian. London.
  40. ^ "AP Stylebook Twitter". Retrieved April 6, 2012.
  41. ^ "Herald Style Guide". Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
  42. ^ "Newsroom 101: Recent Changes to AP Style". Newsroom 101. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
  43. ^ "latinoamericano, na". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). RAE/ASALE. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  44. ^ "iberorrománico, ca". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). RAE/ASALE. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  45. ^ "Who are we?/ Quienes Somos?". Our Lady of Guadalupe Church in New York City.
  46. ^ Ramirez, Tanisha Love; Blay, Zeba (July 5, 2016). "Why People Are Using The Term 'Latinx'". HuffPost. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  47. ^ Luna, Jennie; Estrada, Gabriel S. (2020). "Trans*lating the Genderqueer -X through Caxcan, Nahua, and Xicanx Indígena Knowledge". In Aldama, Arturo J.; Luis Aldama, Frederick (eds.). Decolonizing Latinx Masculinities. University of Arizona Press. pp. 251–268. ISBN 978-0-816541836.
  48. ^ Blackwell; McCaughan, ibid., p. 9
  49. ^ Pero Like (October 14, 2017). "What's The Deal With "Latinx"?". YouTube. Archived from the original on October 29, 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  50. ^ Noe-Bustamante, Luis; Mora, Lauren & Lopez, Mark Hugo (August 11, 2020). "About One-in-Four U.S. Hispanics Have Heard of Latinx, but Just 3% Use It". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  51. ^ a b "The US election proves there's no such thing as "the Latino vote"". Quartz.com. November 6, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  52. ^ Weber, David J. (1992). Spanish Frontier in North America. Yale University Press. pp. 30–91.
  53. ^ "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". National Archives. August 15, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  54. ^ "Milestones: 1801–1829". Office of the Historian. Retrieved January 30, 2024.
  55. ^ "The Spanish-American War, 1898 - 1866–1898 - Milestones - Office of the Historian". January 14, 2016. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved June 18, 2024.
  56. ^ "World Book Encyclopedia | Atlas | Homework Help". April 21, 2009. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. Retrieved June 23, 2024.
  57. ^ "Justice Delayed: Mexican-Americans Win Stolen Oil Rights". October 8, 2012. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2024.
  58. ^ a b Gutiérrez, David G. (July 10, 2020). "An Historic Overview of Latino Immigration and the Demographic Transformation of the United States". National Park Service.
  59. ^ "Meet the 20 MAKERS Inducted Into the National Women's Hall of Fame". Makers. October 5, 2015. Archived from the original on March 26, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  60. ^ "Dolores Huerta". The Adelante Movement. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  61. ^ "Modern Immigration Wave Brings 58 Million to U.S." Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. September 28, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  62. ^ a b "Press Release: Hispanic Heritage Month 2009: Sept. 15 – Oct. 15". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 23, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
  63. ^ Alemany, Jacqueline (May 7, 2020). "Power Up: Black and Hispanic Americans are getting laid off at higher rates than white workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  64. ^ The American Community—Hispanics: 2004 (Report). U.S. Census Bureau. February 1, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  65. ^ "Census QuickFacts: Population Estimates, July 1, 2022, (V2022)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2022.
  66. ^ Cohn, D'vera; Passel, Jeffrey S. (June 8, 2022). "Key facts about the quality of the 2020 census". Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 2, 2022.
  67. ^ a b "T1. Population Estimates; Data Set: 2007 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  68. ^ "Facts for features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2007, Sept. 15–Oct. 15". U.S. Census Bureau. July 16, 2008. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  69. ^ "Census: Hispanics surpass black people in most U.S. metros". USA Today. April 14, 2011.
  70. ^ "Table 4. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2010 to 2050". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (XLS) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  71. ^ "Hispanic Population and Origin in Select U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 2014". Pew Research Center: Hispanic Trends. September 6, 2016.
  72. ^ "Selection Population Profiles – Hispanic or Latino (of any race)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 5, 2022.
  73. ^ "Hispanic Population by State: 2006" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2008.
  74. ^ Shaw, Adam (August 10, 2022). "Abbott's campaign hits back after NYC Mayor Adams threatens to bus New Yorkers to Texas". Fox News. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  75. ^ "Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin: 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. 2018.
  76. ^ "Place of Birth (Hispanic or Latino) in the United States: Hispanic or Latino population in the United States 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  77. ^ "Hispanic or Latino by Specific Origin: 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  78. ^ López, Antonio (April 24, 1998). "A Spanish View of History: Spain's Legacy is not an Issue of Race". New Mexico CultureNet. Archived from the original on October 6, 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
  79. ^ Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Barquera, Rodrigo; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Everardo Martínez, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hünemeier, Tábita (December 19, 2018). "Latin Americans show wide-spread Converso ancestry and imprint of local Native ancestry on physical appearance". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 5388. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.5388C. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07748-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6300600. PMID 30568240.
  80. ^ Pastor, Manuel; Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette (September 9, 2021). "Op-Ed: Why did so few Latinos identify themselves as white in the 2020 census?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 13, 2023.
  81. ^ "Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race". U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  82. ^ Schmitt, Eric (March 13, 2001). "For 7 Million People in Census, One Race Category Isn't Enough". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  83. ^ Aske, Jon. "Hispanics and Race". Salem State University.
  84. ^ Loveman, Mara & Muniz, Jeronimo (2006). "How Puerto Rico Became White" (PDF). Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2012.
  85. ^ Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Børglum, Anders D; Mors, Ole (2014). "Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers". PLOS Genetics. 10 (7): e1004488. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004488. PMC 4109857. PMID 25058410.
  86. ^ "Republic of Cuba – Country Profile". Nations Online. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  87. ^ a b Welch, Susan & Sigelman, Lee (2000). "Getting to Know You? Latino-Anglo Social Contact". Social Science Quarterly. 1 (81): 67–83. JSTOR 42864368. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  88. ^ "1970 Census of Population, Subject Reports: Persons of Spanish Origin". U.S. Census Bureau.
  89. ^ 1980: Census of Population (PDF). Bureau of the Census. August 1982.
  90. ^ a b c d Fontenot, Kayla; Semega, Jessica; Kollar, Melissa (2018). "Current Population Reports, P60-263, Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Washington, DC.
  91. ^ "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S Census Bureau. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  92. ^ a b c "Spanish is the most spoken non-English language in U.S. homes, even among non-Hispanics". Pew Research Center. August 13, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  93. ^ Patten, Eileen (April 20, 2016). "The Nation's Latino Population Is Defined by Its Youth". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  94. ^ a b c d e f g Santiago, Deborah A.; Galdeano, Emily Calderón & Taylor, Morgan (January 2015). The Condition of Latinos in Education: 2015 Factbook (PDF). Washington, DC: Excelencia in Education.
  95. ^ Gandara, Patricia C. & Contreras, Frances (2009). The Latino Education Crisis: The Consequences of Failed Social Policies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03127-2. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  96. ^ Fergus, E (2009). "Understanding Latino Students' Schooling Experiences: The Relevance of Skin Color Among Mexican and Puerto Rican High School Students". Teachers College Record. 111 (2): 339–375. doi:10.1177/016146810911100209. S2CID 6630196.
  97. ^ a b Gándara, P (2015). "With the future on the line: Why studying Latino education is so important". American Journal of Education. 121 (3): 451–463. doi:10.1086/680411. S2CID 144901107.
  98. ^ a b "Hispanics: Education Issues". National Education Association. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  99. ^ a b Becerra, D. (2012). "Perceptions of educational barriers affecting the academic achievement of Latino K-12 students". Children and Schools. 34 (3): 167–177. doi:10.1093/cs/cds001.
  100. ^ a b c Menken, Kate (December 31, 2008). English Learners Left Behind. doi:10.21832/9781853599996. ISBN 978-1-85359-999-6.
  101. ^ "By the Numbers: ACE Report Identifies Educational Barriers for Hispanics". American Council on Education. 2011. Archived from the original on April 4, 2018.
  102. ^ Valenzuela, Angela (October 21, 1999). Subtractive Schooling: U.S. – Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-791443224. Retrieved January 16, 2018 – via Google Books.
  103. ^ Wojtkiewicz, R. A.; Donato, K. M. (1995). "Hispanic Educational Attainment: The Effects of Family Background and Nativity". Social Forces. 74 (2): 559–574. doi:10.1093/sf/74.2.559.
  104. ^ ValdéS, Guadalupe (January 1992). "Bilingual Minorities and Language Issues in Writing: Toward Professionwide Responses to a New Challenge". Written Communication. 9 (1): 85–136. doi:10.1177/0741088392009001003. ISSN 0741-0883.
  105. ^ "UTEP Ranked #1 Engineering School for Hispanics for 3rd Consecutive Year". University of Texas at El Paso.
  106. ^ Castro, Max J. (2002). The Dominican Diaspora Revisited, Dominicans and Dominican-Americans in a New Century.
  107. ^ a b "Ivy League Schools Don't Reflect U.S. Minority Ratios". National Journal. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  108. ^ Delwiche, Theodore R. (May 9, 2014). "Record Number of African Americans, Latinos Matriculate as Yield Increases". The Crimson. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  109. ^ "Stanford University: Common Data Set 2013–2014". Ucomm.stanford.edu. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  110. ^ "Top 100 Colleges and Universities Hispanics". Hispanic Outlook On Education Magazine. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  111. ^ "HACU Lists of Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Emerging HSIs 2017–2018". Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  112. ^ "HO Top 100 Rankings: Colleges & Universities Granting" (PDF). Hispanic Outlook. May 13, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2013. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  113. ^ "California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office". Data Mart. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  114. ^ Malhotra, Monica. "CSU – AS – Enrollment by Ethnic Group – Fall 2013". California State University. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  115. ^ "The Fact Book: Report for the Florida College System 2014" (PDF). Florida Department of Education Division of Accountability, Research, and Measurement. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  116. ^ "Facts 2013" (PDF). The University of Texas System. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  117. ^ "Board of Governors : Resources". State University System of Florida. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  118. ^ "A Profile of Undergraduates at CUNY Senior and Community Colleges: Fall 2013" (PDF). CUNY Office of Institutional Research and Assessment. May 14, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  119. ^ "Fast Facts – SUNY". State University of New York. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  120. ^ "Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Institutional Targets for Closing the Gaps in Participation, Targets One – Four" (PDF). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. February 24, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  121. ^ "The Texas A&M University System Facts 2013" (PDF). Texas A&M University. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 10, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  122. ^ "Nevada System Of Higher Education: Diversity: Minority Status" (PDF). NSHE. [dead link]
  123. ^ Godoy, Maria (May 30, 2020). "What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?". NPR.
  124. ^ Karson, Kendall; Scanlan, Quinn (May 22, 2020). "Black Americans and Latinos nearly 3 times as likely to know someone who died of COVID-19: POLL". ABC News.
  125. ^ "States tracking COVID-19 race and ethnicity data". American Medical Association. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  126. ^ Arias, Elizabeth; Xu, Jiaquan & Kochanek, Kenneth D. (May 7, 2019). "United States Life Tables, 2016". National Vital Statistics Reports. 68 (4): 1–66. PMID 31112121.
  127. ^ a b Goldman, N. (2016). "Will the Latino Mortality Advantage Endure?". Research on Aging. 38 (3): 263–282. doi:10.1177/0164027515620242. PMC 4955825. PMID 26966251.
  128. ^ Diaz, C. J.; Koning, S. M.; Martinez-Donate, A. P. (2016). "Moving Beyond Salmon Bias: Mexican Return Migration and Health Selection". Demography. 53 (6): 2005–2030. doi:10.1007/s13524-016-0526-2. PMC 5735845. PMID 27848222.
  129. ^ Diaz, Christina J.; Niño, Michael (2019). "Familism and the Hispanic Health Advantage: The Role of Immigrant Status". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 60 (3): 274–290. doi:10.1177/0022146519869027. PMID 31526018. S2CID 202674498.
  130. ^ a b c d Artiga, Samantha; Orgera, Kendal & Damico, Anthony (February 13, 2019). "Changes in Health Coverage by Race and Ethnicity since Implementation of the ACA, 2013–2017". Kaiser Family Foundation.
  131. ^ a b De Leon Siantz, Mary Lou; Castaneda, Xochitl; Benavente, Viola; Peart, Tasha; Felt, Emily (2013). "The Health Status of Latino Immigrant Women in the united States and Future Health Policy Implications of the Affordable Care Act". Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 2 (5): 70–74. doi:10.7453/gahmj.2013.066. PMC 3833563. PMID 24416697.
  132. ^ a b c d e f g h i Torres, S. A.; Santiago, C. D.; Walts, K. K. & Richards, M. H. (2018). "Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families". American Psychologist. 73 (7): 843–854. doi:10.1037/amp0000184. PMID 29504782. S2CID 3692176.
  133. ^ a b c Letiecq, B. L.; Grzywacz, J. G.; Gray, K. M. & Eudave, Y. M. (2014). "Depression among Mexican men on the migration frontier: the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors". Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 16 (6): 1193–1200. doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9918-1. PMID 24142396. S2CID 762954.
  134. ^ a b c d e f Hinojos, Belinda (July 2013). Stressors and Coping Strategies of Undocumented Latinos in Therapy (DPhil). University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
  135. ^ López, Gustavo (September 15, 2015). "The Impact of Slowing Immigration: Foreign-Born Share Falls Among 14 Largest U.S. Hispanic Origin Groups". Pew Research Center. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  136. ^ Flores, Antonio (September 18, 2017). "How the U.S. Hispanic population is changing". Pew Research Center.
  137. ^ Gándara, P. (2015). "With the future on the line: Why studying Latino education is so important". American Journal of Education. 121 (3): 454. doi:10.1086/680411. S2CID 144901107.
  138. ^ a b "What is the future of Spanish in the United States?". Pew Research Center. September 5, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  139. ^ Rodriguez, Cindy Y. (September 20, 2013). "Fewer Latinos will speak Spanish, more non-Latinos will, report says". CNN. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  140. ^ "IV. Language Use". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. December 11, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  141. ^ "Languages Spoken and Learned in the United States". Vistawide.com. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  142. ^ "Most Studied Foreign Languages in the U.S." Infoplease.com. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  143. ^ Small, Lawrence M (August 1, 2002). "Latino Legacies". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved April 28, 2008. There was a Hispanic presence on the continent for more than 200 years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England. ... By 1607, when the British established their first successful settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, writes historian Bernard Bailyn, "Spain's American dominion extended nearly 8,000 miles, from Southern California to the Straits of Magellan"
  144. ^ "A Brief History of St. Augustine". City of St. Augustine. Archived from the original on September 7, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2008. Founded in 1565, St. Augustine is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the United States. Forty-two years before the English colonized Jamestown and fifty-five years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, the Spanish established at St. Augustine this nation's first enduring settlement.
  145. ^ "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". America's Library. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008. On September 8, 1565, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés landed on the shore of what is now called Matanzas Bay and began the founding of the Presidio of San Agustin. Later the settlement would be called St. Augustine, Florida. Built on the site of an ancient Native American village, and near the place where Ponce de León, the European discoverer of Florida, landed in 1513 in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth, it has been continually inhabited since its founding.
  146. ^ Francisco Lopez de Mendoza Grajales. "The Founding of St. Augustine, 1565". Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
  147. ^ a b "B16006. Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over (Hispanic or Latino)". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 12, 2008. [There were 39.5 million Hispanic and Latino Americans aged 5 or more in 2006. 8.5 million of them, or 22%, spoke only English at home, and another 156,000, or 0.4%, spoke neither English nor Spanish at home. The other 30.8 million, or 78%, spoke Spanish at home. Of these, 3.7 million spoke no English, while the overwhelming majority, 27.2 million, did, at these levels: 15.5 million "very well", 5.8 million "well", and 5.9 million "not well". These 27.2 million bilingual speakers represented 69% of all (39.5 million) Hispanic and Latino Americans aged five or over in 2006, while the 3.7 million monolingual Spanish-speakers represented 9%.]
  148. ^ "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (Hispanic or Latino (of any race))". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 2, 2010. Retrieved June 11, 2008.
  149. ^ Shin, Hyon B. & Bruno, Rosalind (October 2003). "Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  150. ^ "The Future of Spanish in the United States". Languagepolicy.net. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  151. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  152. ^ "8 Reasons Spanish Isn't A Foreign Language In The U.S. (SLIDESHOW)". The Huffington Post. June 12, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  153. ^ Benmamoun, Elabbas; Montrul, Silvina & Polinsky, Maria (2010). "Prologmena to Heritage Linguistics". Harvard University.
  154. ^ Suarez, Ray & Stavans, Ilan. "Do You Speak American?: Spanglish". PBS. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  155. ^ Haggin, Patience (August 27, 2013). "Miami Accents: Why Locals Embrace That Heavy "L" Or Not". WLRN. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  156. ^ Lipski, John M. (2005). "Code-switching or Borrowing? No sé so no puedo decir, you know" (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
  157. ^ a b c "In U.S., Decline of Christianity Continues at Rapid Pace". Pew Research Center. October 17, 2019.
  158. ^ a b "The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States". Pew Research Center. May 7, 2014.
  159. ^ "Chapter 7: Renewalism and Hispanic Christianity". The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States (Report). Pew Research Center. May 7, 2014.
  160. ^ "Select-a-Faith: Latinos are quitting the Catholic church". The Economist. May 17, 2014.
  161. ^ "Faith: Pick and mix". The Economist. March 14, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  162. ^ Espinosa, Gastón (2008). "Latinos, Religion, and the American Presidency". In Espinosa, Gastón (ed.). Religion, Race, and the American Presidency. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 242–244. ISBN 978-0-742563216.
  163. ^ a b Dias, Elizabeth (November 12, 2019). "U.S. Catholic Bishops Elect Hispanic Immigrant as Leader". The New York Times.
  164. ^ Long-García, J.D. (May 4, 2018). "The Hispanic Catholic Church in the U.S. is growing, survey confirms". America.
  165. ^ Nadeem, Reem (April 13, 2023). "Among U.S. Latinos, Catholicism Continues to Decline But Is Still the Largest Faith". Pew Research Center. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  166. ^ Kerevel, Yann P. (June 2011). "The Influence of Spanish-Language Media on Latino Public Opinion and Group Consciousness" (PDF). Social Science Quarterly. 92 (2): 509–534. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2019.
  167. ^ Subervi-Velez, Federico A. (January 1986). "The Mass Media and Ethnic Assimilation and Pluralism: A Review and Research Proposal with Special Focus on Hispanics". Communication Research. 13 (1): 71–96. doi:10.1177/009365028601300105. S2CID 146739567.
  168. ^ Polley, Leonor Ayala & Morales, Natalie (February 24, 2020). "Ozzie Areu, the first Latino to own a major studio, has a Hollywood story himself". NBC News.
  169. ^ Murry, Kenny (December 5, 2019). "Atlanta's Areu Bros. Open First Latinx-Owned Studios In US". Georgia Public Broadcasting.
  170. ^ Chambers, Todd (2006). "The state of Spanish-language radio". Journal of Radio Studies. 13 (1): 34–50. doi:10.1207/s15506843jrs1301_3. S2CID 167640657.
  171. ^ Schement, Jorge Reina & Flores, Ricardo (1977). "The Origins of Spanish-Language Radio: The Case of San Antonio, Texas". Journalism History. 4 (2): 56–61. doi:10.1080/00947679.1977.12066845.
  172. ^ Gutiérrez, Félix F. & Schement, Jorge Reina (1979). Spanish-Language Radio in the Southwestern United States. Austin, TX: UT Center for Mexican American Studies.
  173. ^ Paxman, Andrew (2018). "The Rise of US Spanish-Language Radio From 'Dead Airtime' to Consolidated Ownership (1920s–1970s)". Journalism History. 44 (3): 174–186. doi:10.1080/00947679.2018.12059208. S2CID 181477533.
  174. ^ Casillas, Dolores Inés (October 2014). Sounds of Belonging: US Spanish-language radio and public advocacy. New York City: NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-814770658.
  175. ^ Levine, D.M. (January 19, 2012). "As Hispanic Television Market Grows, Univision Reshuffles Executives". AdWeek. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  176. ^ "How Latin trap defied the odds and launched the hottest artists of 2018 - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. February 28, 2019. Archived from the original on February 28, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2024.
  177. ^ Thompson-Hernández, Walter (January 28, 2024). "Where Mexican Folk Ballads Meet Trap Music - The New York Times". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2024. Retrieved May 13, 2024.
  178. ^ "From Reggaeton to Dominican Dembow. A Timeline to the Hottest Music Genre Around - HipLatina". February 13, 2024. Archived from the original on February 13, 2024. Retrieved May 13, 2024.
  179. ^ Chumley, Cheryl K. (October 17, 2013). "Hispanic influence: Tortillas take over burger buns as fast-food fave". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  180. ^ Ferdman, Roberto A. (November 25, 2021). "The rise of the avocado, America's new favorite fruit". The Washington Post.
  181. ^ "Latino, other ethnic influences changing America's food choices". NBC Latino. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  182. ^ "Food in United States: Latino Americans". Food by Country. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  183. ^ Adcox, Susan. "Grandparents Important in Hispanic Family Structure". About.com Parenting. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  184. ^ "Hispanic Priorities: Marriage, Family and Youth". Barna Group. Archived from the original on March 1, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  185. ^ "Cultural Values of Latino Patients and Families". Dimensions of Culture.com. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  186. ^ a b Landale, Nancy S.; Oropesa, R. Salvador & Bradatan, Christina. "Hispanic Families in the United States: Family Structure and Process in an Era of Family Change". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  187. ^ "Hispanics Place Higher Emphasis On Education, Poll Reports". The Huffington Post. July 20, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  188. ^ Brown, B. Bradford; Larson, Reed W. & Saraswathi, Tharakad Subramanium, eds. (2002). The World's Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521809108.
  189. ^ Ford, Rebecca (February 18, 2016). "'The Witch' Breakout Anya Taylor-Joy Goes From Ballet to Studio Thrillers". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  190. ^ Florsheim, Lane (November 6, 2020). "Anya Taylor-Joy on 'The Queen's Gambit' and Dancing at the End of the Pandemic". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on November 15, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  191. ^ Fishwick, Samuel (January 19, 2017). "Anya Taylor-Joy: meet the actress on the cusp of Hollywood superstardom". Evening Standard. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  192. ^ "The Spanish family of Anya, the actress of Gambito de Dama: her grandmother's shop in Zaragoza". The Canadian News. March 7, 2021. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  193. ^ a b c d e "Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out"" (PDF). Pew Research Center. June 15, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2016.
  194. ^ a b c Wang, Wendy (February 16, 2012). "The Rise of Intermarriage". Pew Research Center.
  195. ^ "Rosa Salazar: From "Abbreviated" 'Bird Box' Role to James Cameron's 'Alita'". The Hollywood Reporter. January 11, 2019. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  196. ^ Lee, Sharon M. & Edmonston, Barry (June 2005). "New Marriages, New Families: U.S. Racial and Hispanic Intermarriage" (PDF). Population Reference Bureau Population Bulletin. 6 (2). ISSN 0032-468X. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  197. ^ Jeffrey S. Passel; Wendy Wang; Paul Taylor (June 4, 2010). "Marrying Out: One-in-Seven New U.S. Marriages is Interracial or Interethnic" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 31, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  198. ^ Glazer, Nathan (1998). We are All Multiculturalists Now. Harvard University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-674948365. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  199. ^ "Multiracial population grows in Orlando". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  200. ^ "How interracial relationships shape the Latino community". Being Latino. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  201. ^ "Explorations in Black and Tan". Imdiversity.com. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  202. ^ Szot, Hilary S. (February 26, 2014). "Black History Month: New Generation Of Afro-Latinos Tackles Race And Identity". Fox News Latino. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  203. ^ Alex-Assensoh, Yvette Marie; Hanks, Lawrence J. (November 2000). Black and Multiracial Politics in America. NYU Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780814706633. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  204. ^ Torres, Andrés (1995). Between Melting Pot and Mosaic. Temple University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-566392808. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  205. ^ "The case of the white Cubans". Gene Expression. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  206. ^ "'Whitening' the children: a desire of many Cuban families". Iván's File Cabinet. February 25, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  207. ^ a b Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette (2004). "Gender and the Latino experience in Late-Twentieth-Century America". In Gutiérrez, D.G. (ed.). The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960. New York City: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231118088.
  208. ^ a b Gowan, Mary; Trevino, Melanie (June 1, 1998). "An Examination of Gender Differences in Mexican-American Attitudes Toward Family and Career Roles". Sex Roles. 38 (11): 1079–1093. doi:10.1023/A:1018886912223. ISSN 1573-2762. S2CID 141119013.
  209. ^ Peñalosa, Fernando (1968). "Mexican Family Roles". Journal of Marriage and Family. 30 (4): 680–689. doi:10.2307/349517. ISSN 0022-2445. JSTOR 349517.
  210. ^ Galanti, Geri-Ann (July 2003). "The Hispanic Family and Male-Female Relationships: An Overview". Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 14 (3): 180–185. doi:10.1177/1043659603014003004. ISSN 1043-6596. PMID 12861920. S2CID 2397695.
  211. ^ Cromwell, Ronald E.; Ruiz, Rene A. (December 1979). "The Myth of Macho Dominance in Decision Making Within Mexican and Chicano Families". Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 1 (4): 355–373. doi:10.1177/073998637900100404. ISSN 0739-9863. PMID 12340208. S2CID 11319203.
  212. ^ Souza, Caridad (2002). "The Sexual Identities of Young Puerto Rican Mothers". Diálogo. 6 (1).
  213. ^ a b c Foner, Nancy; Deaux, Kay; Donato, Katharine M. (2018). "Introduction: Immigration and Changing Identities". RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 4 (5): 1–25. doi:10.7758/rsf.2018.4.5.01. ISSN 2377-8253. JSTOR 10.7758/rsf.2018.4.5.01. S2CID 158508992.
  214. ^ Espin, Oliva M.; Warner, Beth (September 1982). "Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College". International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 28 (3): 233–239. doi:10.1177/002076408202800310. ISSN 0020-7640. PMID 7118462. S2CID 45670975.
  215. ^ Pérez, Gina (2003). "'Puertorriqueñas Rencorosas y Mejicanas Sufridas': Gendered Ethnic Identity Formation in Chicago's Latino Communities". Journal of Latin American Anthropology. 8 (2): 96–124. doi:10.1525/jlca.2003.8.2.96.
  216. ^ Tharp, Roland G.; Meadow, Arnold; Lennhoff, Susan G.; Satterfield, Donna (1968). "Changes in Marriage Roles Accompanying the Acculturation of the Mexican-American Wife". Journal of Marriage and Family. 30 (3): 404–412. doi:10.2307/349908. ISSN 0022-2445. JSTOR 349908.
  217. ^ a b Bojórquez, Kim (June 1, 2022). "More Latinos are identifying as LGBTQ. Here's how some in Utah have found acceptance and community". The Salt Lake Tribune. The poll found 11% of U.S. Latino adults said they identified as LGBTQ, nearly twice the rate of 6.2% of non-Hispanic white adults and 6.6% of Black adults who said they were queer. The percentage of queer Latino adults was even higher among Gen Zers — the cohort born between 1997 and 2012 — where more than 1 in 5 said they were LGBTQ, the report found.
  218. ^ Kupemba, Danai Nesta (June 12, 2022). "More young, Hispanic Americans identify as LGBTQ+ than ever before". PinkNews. New data has confirmed that young Hispanic Americans are driving an increase in the LGBTQ+ population.
  219. ^ Nolan, Ian T.; Kuhner, Christopher J.; Dy, Geolani W. (2019). "Demographic and temporal trends in transgender identities and gender confirming surgery". Translational Andrology and Urology. 8 (3). AME Publishing Company: 184–190. doi:10.21037/tau.2019.04.09. ISSN 2223-4683. PMC 6626314. PMID 31380225. Studies evaluating racial and ethnic demographic trends suggest that non-white groups are overrepresented in TGNB populations. Flores et al. estimate transgender prevalence among non-Hispanic whites at approximately 480 per 100,000, lower than the 770 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic blacks, 840 per 100,000 for "Hispanic/Latino" and 640 per 100,000 for "other non-Hispanic" categories.
  220. ^ Flores, Andrew (2016). Race And Ethnicity Of Adults Who Identify As Transgender In The United States (PDF). Los Angeles, California: The Williams Institute (UCLA). p. 3. Based on these estimates, we find that adults who identify as transgender are less likely to be White and more likely to be African-American or Black and Hispanic or Latino than the U.S. general population.
  221. ^ Gattamorta, Karina; Quidley-Rodriguez, Narciso (2018). "Coming Out Experiences of Hispanic Sexual Minority Young Adults in South Florida". Journal of Homosexuality. 65 (6): 741–765. doi:10.1080/00918369.2017.1364111. ISSN 0091-8369. PMC 5797510. PMID 28771094. Machismo, a socially constructed set of behaviors that reinforces male gender roles in Hispanic culture, may impact identity development and behavior (Arciniega, Anderson, Tovar-Blank, & Tracey, 2008; Basham, 1976; De La Cancela, 1986). Hirai, Winkel, and Popan (2014) reported that higher levels of machismo was positively correlated with prejudice toward lesbians and gay men. In addition, machismo has been correlated with internalized homophobia (Estrada, Rigali-Oiler, Arciniega, & Tracey, 2011), and this, in turn, has been linked to mental health issues and suicidal ideation (Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, McLaughlin, & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2008; Newcomb & Mustanski, 2010; Williamson, 2000).
  222. ^ Franco, Marina (March 24, 2022). "Poll: Latinos are highly accepting of members of LGBTQ community". Axios.
  223. ^ "Where black and brown collide: The struggle for political dominance". The Economist. August 2, 2007.
  224. ^ Chideya, Farai & del Barco, Mandalit (May 16, 2005). "Racial Tension at Los Angeles High School". National Public Radio.
  225. ^ a b Nagourney, Adam & Steinhauer, Jennifer (January 15, 2008). "In Obama's Pursuit of Latinos, Race Plays Role". The New York Times.
  226. ^ Broder, John M. (April 24, 2005). "A Black-Latino Coalition Emerges in Los Angeles". The New York Times.
  227. ^ Preston, Julia (December 13, 2007). "Survey Points to Tensions Among Chief Minorities". The New York Times.
  228. ^ Senteno, Christine (December 13, 2007). "Poll Explores Racial Tensions Among Minority Groups". UCLA Center for Communications & Community. Archived from the original on July 12, 2010.
  229. ^ Rosentiel, Tom (April 26, 2006). "Attitudes Toward Immigration: In Black and White". Pew Research Center.
  230. ^ Saucedo, Leticia M. (July 2008). "African American–immigrant Tensions: Myths, Realities And Policy Implications" (PDF). University of Berkeley Law School.
  231. ^ a b Saad, Lydia (July 17, 2008). "White people May Exaggerate Black-Hispanic Tensions". Gallup.
  232. ^ Faturechi, Robert (December 21, 2010). "Hate crimes in L.A. County down overall, but anti-Jewish vandalism rises". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011.
  233. ^ a b Levenson, Michael (December 10, 2007). "GOP hopefuls beckon Hispanics in debate". The Boston Globe. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  234. ^ Munoz, Carlos Jr. (November 2, 2000). "The Latino challenge". BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
  235. ^ Medina, Jennifer (March 1, 2022). "How Immigration Politics Drives Some Hispanic Voters to the G.O.P. in Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  236. ^ Cadava, Geraldo (January 18, 2022). "Latino Voters Are Key to 2024, and They're Not Always Buying What Democrats Are Selling". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  237. ^ Concha, Joe (April 17, 2022). "Hispanics are abandoning Biden in droves. Here's why". The Hill. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  238. ^ McDaniel, Ronna (April 29, 2022). "Minorities are finding a new political home with the Republican Party". The Hill. Retrieved May 2, 2022.
  239. ^ Frasure-Yokley, L. & Wilcox-Archuleta, B. (2019). "Geographic Identity and Attitudes toward Undocumented Immigrants". Political Research Quarterly. 4 (72): 944–959. doi:10.1177/1065912919843349. JSTOR 45223013. S2CID 182586898. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  240. ^ "1. Looking Forward to 2016: The Changing Latino Electorate". Pew Research Center. January 19, 2016.
  241. ^ "Millennials Make Up Almost Half of Latino Eligible Voters in 2016". Pew Research Center. January 19, 2016.
  242. ^ "2016 electorate will be the most diverse in U.S. history". Pew Research Center. February 3, 2016.
  243. ^ Valdes, Marcela (September 14, 2016). "27 Million Potential Hispanic Votes. But What Will They Really Add Up To?". The New York Times Magazine.
  244. ^ "The Hispanic Vote in Presidential Elections, 1980–2012" (PDF). Pew Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 23, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  245. ^ Ndiaye, Ahmad (March 22, 2008). "Obama gets another ally". Afrik-News. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  246. ^ a b Minushkin, Susan & Lopez, Mark Hugo (February 21, 2008). "The Hispanic Vote in the 2008 Democratic Presidential Primaries" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 1, 2009.
  247. ^ a b "Obama dominates McCain among Hispanics: poll". AFP. July 2, 2008. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2009.
  248. ^ "McCain Lost Ground with Hispanics, Despite Immigration Stance". HispanicTips. September 1, 2010. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  249. ^ Costantini, Peter (November 12, 2008). "Why John McCain Lost the Latino Vote". AlterNet. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  250. ^ Video on YouTube
  251. ^ a b Lawrence, Jill (November 6, 2008). "Hispanic vote grows, shifts to Democrats". USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  252. ^ "Local Exit Polls – Election Center 2008". CNN. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  253. ^ Carroll, Susan (November 6, 2008). "In record turnout, Hispanic voters flip red states to blue". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  254. ^ a b Ewers, Justin (January 30, 2009). "Republicans and Latino Voters: Has the GOP Shifted on Immigration Reform?". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved April 8, 2009. Page 1
  255. ^ "[OPINION] The Latino Vote In 2012 and the Depth Of The GOP Problem". NJ Today.net. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  256. ^ "Are Republican immigration reform opponents losing clout?". CBS News.com. November 23, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  257. ^ Romney, Mitt (July 31, 2012). "Culture does matter". National Review Online.
  258. ^ Bloomfield, Adrian; Day, Matthew; Swaine, Jon (July 30, 2012). "Mitt Romney: Israelis richer than Palestinians because of 'hand of providence'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022.
  259. ^ a b Sherwood, Harriet (July 30, 2012). "Mitt Romney 'providence' comments in Israel outrage Palestinians". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  260. ^ "Text of Romney's Remarks About Culture and Israel". ABC News. Associated Press. August 1, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  261. ^ "Mitt Romney creates fresh divisions on Israel tour with 'racist' economic remarks". National Post. July 30, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
  262. ^ "Embajada de México rechaza comentarios de Romney". El Universal (in Spanish). August 1, 2012. Archived from the original on July 8, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
  263. ^ Sabato, Larry J. (2017). "The 2016 Election that Broke All, or At Least Most, of the Rules". In Sabato, Larry; Kondik, Kyle & Skelley, Geoffrey (eds.). Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-442279407.
  264. ^ Barreto, Matt; Schaller, Thomas; Segura, Gary (2017). "Latinos and the 2016 Election". In Sabato, Larry; Kondik, Kyle; Skelley, Geoffrey (eds.). Trumped: The 2016 Election That Broke All the Rules. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 123–35. ISBN 978-1-442279407.
  265. ^ Skelley, Geoffrey (March 23, 2017). "Another Look Back at 2016: Comparing the exit poll and the Cooperative Congressional Election Study". Sabato's Crystal Ball. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  266. ^ Remnick, David (July 23, 2018). "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez's Historic Win and the Future of the Democratic Party". The New Yorker.
  267. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (June 26, 2018). "High-ranking Democrat ousted in stunning primary loss to newcomer Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez". NBC News. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  268. ^ "Bernie Sanders weighs in on Ocasio-Cortez's victory". MSNBC. June 27, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  269. ^ "President Donald J. Trump Announces Intent to Nominate and Appoint Individuals to Key Administration Posts". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved September 17, 2020 – via National Archives.
  270. ^ "Election 2020: How Latino voters turned Arizona blue". AJ+. Retrieved July 10, 2024.
  271. ^ "Culinary Union delivered Nevada for Biden/Harris, drove unprecedented turnout with the largest political team statewide". Culinary Union Local 226. November 7, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2024.
  272. ^ "Trump's gains among Latino voters shouldn't come as a surprise. Here's why". NBC News. November 5, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  273. ^ "2 Hispanic congressmen from Arizona among 'potential candidates' for Biden's cabinet". 12news NBC News. November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  274. ^ "Latino voters were decisive in 2020 presidential election". UCLA. January 6, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  275. ^ Svitek, Patrick (March 24, 2022). "U.S. Rep. Filemon Vela's resignation announcement sparks a sudden special-election scramble in hotly contested South Texas". Texas Tribune. Archived from the original on March 24, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  276. ^ a b Harris, Cayla; Bureau, Austin (April 11, 2022) [April 7, 2022]. "Texas Republican Mayra Flores gets a boost in quest to be first U.S. congresswoman born in Mexico". San Antonio Express-News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2022. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  277. ^ Svitek, Patrick (June 14, 2022). "Republicans flip U.S. House seat in South Texas, historically a Democratic stronghold". Texas Tribune. Archived from the original on June 15, 2022.
  278. ^ Svitek, Patrick (July 6, 2023). "National GOP recruiting Mayra Flores, ousted from her South Texas seat, to run again for Congress". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved January 16, 2024.
  279. ^ Oboler, Suzanne & González, Deena J., eds. (2006). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos & Latinas In The United States. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195156003.
  280. ^ Mier, Tomás (March 14, 2021). "'We've Got the Whole World Listening': J Balvin and Ricky Martin Talk Repping Latinos at Grammys". People. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  281. ^ "Billboard's Latin Charts Switch To SoundScan". Billboard. July 10, 1993. pp. 4, 71. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  282. ^ "RIAA Launches "Los Premios de Oro y De Platino" to Recognize Top Latin Artists". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  283. ^ "Historia: Premios Lo Nuestro". Terra (in Spanish). Terra Networks, Inc. February 6, 2006. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  284. ^ "Univision Announces the Nominees for Spanish-language Music's Highest Honors Premio Lo Nuestro a la Musica Latina". Univision. March 27, 1996. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  285. ^ Valdes-Rodriguez, Alisa (September 12, 2000). "One Little Word, Yet It Means So Much". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  286. ^ Garza, Agustin (May 18, 2002). "Latin Grammys Struggle With Loss of Momentum". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  287. ^ Melas, Chloe (November 23, 2020). "American Music Awards 2020: See who won". CNN. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
  288. ^ Lee, Kevin (January 2008). ""The Little State Department": Hollywood and the MPAA's Influence on U.S. Trade Relations". Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 28 (2).
  289. ^ Davison, Heather K.; Burke, Michael J. (2000). "Sex Discrimination in Simulated Employment Contexts: A Meta-analytic Investigation". Journal of Vocational Behavior. 56 (2): 225–248. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1999.1711.
  290. ^ a b Enrique Pérez, Daniel (2009). Rethinking Chicana/o and Latina/o Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 93–95. ISBN 978-0-230616066.
  291. ^ "About Us". National Hispanic Media Coalition. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
  292. ^ Noriega, Chon. "Politics and Culture: Making a Difference". Connecticut College. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
  293. ^ "2020 Emmy Nominations Criticized by Hispanic Caucus for 'Erasure' of Latino Actors". People. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  294. ^ "Emmys 2020 nominees are more diverse, but Latino representation still abysmal". Los Angeles Times. July 28, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  295. ^ "The Afro-Latino Actors Fighting Erasure in Hollywood". Time. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  296. ^ "John Leguizamo will boycott the Emmys: 'If you don't have Latin people, there's no reason for me to see it'". The Independent. September 18, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  297. ^ Samaha, Barry; Betancourt, Bianca (October 13, 2021). "14 Latinx Designers on How Their Culture Informs Their Work". Harper's Bazaar. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
  298. ^ "I'd Like The World To Buy A Coke". Businessweek. April 13, 1998. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  299. ^ Gregory, Sean (August 13, 2005). "Arturo Moreno: The Major League Player". Time. Archived from the original on September 8, 2005. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  300. ^ a b "Forbes 400". Forbes. November 14, 2017.
  301. ^ Piore, Adam (May 1, 2013). "Related's Jorge Pérez puts his stamp on the skyline". The Real Deal. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  302. ^ Levin, Jordan (April 15, 2016). "Jorge Pérez – building a cultural legacy". Miami Herald. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  303. ^ "Joseph Unanue". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
  304. ^ "Biografía de Ángel Ramos Torres". Manati.info (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
  305. ^ "Samuel A. Ramirez & Company, Inc. Introduces The Ramirez Hispanic Index Equally-Weighted Portfolio". Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
  306. ^ "Making Wall Street History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 2, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2009. (Scan of cover story in Hispanic Trends, issue of December 2005 – January 2006.)
  307. ^ "30 Under 30". Hispanic Executive.
  308. ^ "First Tech Fund CEO, Josue De Paz Selected as Class of 2022-2023 Obama Foundation Scholar". First Tech Fund. August 30, 2022.
  309. ^ "Directory of Latino Elected Officials", NALEO, archived from the original on May 31, 2009, retrieved January 27, 2010
  310. ^ "Latino clout in Congress appears to stay consistent". Houston Chronicle. January 8, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  311. ^ "History". NALEO. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
  312. ^ "First Latina Governor's Historic Inauguration Gets Little National News Coverage". Fox News. January 11, 2011.
  313. ^ "Lauro F. Cavazos: An Inventory of His Papers 1943–1991 and undated, at the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library". University of Texas. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  314. ^ Wang, Hansi Lo (November 4, 2021). "The Senate has confirmed the 1st Latino to lead the U.S. census, Robert Santos". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  315. ^ "Mission and History". USHLI. August 30, 2018.
  316. ^ ""The Wild Frontier' by Jorge Majfud Shares Tales From The Remarkable Past"". Pro News Report. June 2, 2021.
  317. ^ "Princeton's Children's Book Festival". Princeton Library. September 15, 2007. Archived from the original on February 26, 2010.
  318. ^ "Operation Tribute to Freedom: Hispanic Heritage Month". U.S. Army. March 25, 2007. Archived from the original on March 25, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  319. ^ "Senator Mark Pryor Press Releases". U.S. Senate. March 8, 2007. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  320. ^ "The Hispanic Experience – Contributions to America's Defense". Houston Culture.org. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  321. ^ "U.S. military, a growing Latino army". NBC Latino.com. January 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 25, 2018. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  322. ^ Farragut, Loyall (1879). The life of David Glasgow Farragut, first admiral of the United States navy: embodying his journal and letters. New York City: D. Appleton & Company. p. 3.
  323. ^ Hickman, Kennedy. "Admiral David G. Farragut: Hero of the Union Navy". About.com. p. 216. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
  324. ^ Kanellos, Nicolás (1997). Hispanic Firsts: 500 Years of Extraordinary Achievement. Canton, Michigan: Visible Ink Press. pp. 210–211. ISBN 0-7876-0519-0.
  325. ^ "Prominent Figures in Hispanic History". Arlington Cemetery. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  326. ^ a b c Hernandez, Roger E. (2008). The Civil War, 1840s–1890s. New York: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2939-5.
  327. ^ a b c "Hispanics in America's Defense" (PDF). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Manpower and Personnel Policy. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  328. ^ "Civil War Stories – Immigrants". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  329. ^ Hannigan, Isabel. "'Overrun All This Country...' Two New Mexican Lives Through the Nineteenth Century". Oberlin College. Archived from the original on October 9, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
  330. ^ Whalen, Carmen Teresa & Vázquez-Hernandez, Víctor (2008). The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-59213-413-7.
  331. ^ "Virgil Rasmuss Miller" (PDF). Assembly. Vol. XXVIII, no. 2. Association of Graduates, U.S. Military Academy. Summer 1969. pp. 132–133. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2014.
  332. ^ "Patriots under Fire: Japanese Americans in World War II". Retrieved June 1, 2016. [dead link]
  333. ^ "Hispanic-Americans and the U.S. Coast Guard: A Historical Chronology". U.S. Coast Guard. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  334. ^ Kennon, Katie (February 17, 1996). "US Latinos and Latinas and WWII: Young woman's life defined by service in Women's Army Corp". University of Texas. Archived from the original on February 17, 2006.
  335. ^ "The 65th Infantry Regiment on Kelly in September 1952". mervino.com. Retrieved October 10, 2006.
  336. ^ "Sargento Jorge Otero Barreto". Univision.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  337. ^ "Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Coast Guard". U.S. Coast Guard.
  338. ^ "Hispanic Military History". U.S Air Force. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  339. ^ "Notable Hispanics". City of Albuquerque. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  340. ^ "Enlisted Commissioning Program (ECP)". United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2006.
  341. ^ Martin, David (May 3, 2017). "Army combat photographer's last picture is of her own death". CBS News.
  342. ^ "HPSCI Chairman Reyes Honors D/NCS Jose Rodriguez". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
  343. ^ "Diversity, the MI Tradition" (PDF). Fort Huachuca, United States Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  344. ^ "Exótico Cielo Profundo". SurAstronomico.com (in Spanish). Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  345. ^ "News". Optics & Photonics News. 6 (10): 12. October 1995.
  346. ^ Seay, Gregory (November 30, 2009). "Genetic Roadmap Targets Drug Therapies". Hartford Business Review. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010.
  347. ^ "Un Modelo de Vida" [A role model in his lifetime]. Colegio Fermín Tangüis (in Spanish). Archived from the original on May 12, 2008.
  348. ^ "Hispanic Astronauts/Astronautas Hispanos". NASA. Archived from the original on July 11, 2001. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
  349. ^ "Latinos in Baseball - Early Years". University of Michigan. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  350. ^ "Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  351. ^ "The Latin-born managers in Major League Baseball history". PennLive. April 4, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  352. ^ "Mike González Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  353. ^ "MLB to celebrate Latin American-born Hall of Famers in All-Star pregame ceremony". MLB.com. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  354. ^ a b c "Which Latinos Won Gold at the Rio Olympics? Here's Our Handy List". NBC News. August 22, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  355. ^ "Hispanic Influence in U.S. Soccer". US Soccer.com. September 20, 2013. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015.
  356. ^ "Research Study: The Hispanic Influence On American Culture". Reuters. PR Newswire. November 28, 2012. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
  357. ^ "Latino Influence Shapes Action Sports". UCF Today. September 30, 2009. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  358. ^ "Ryan Lochte Becomes 2nd Most Decorated Male Olympic Swimmer In History". SwimSwam. August 10, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  359. ^ "Cuban-American Swimmer Ryan Lochte Aims for Another 2016 Olympic Gold". NBC News. August 11, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  360. ^ "Dara Torres battles doping rumors, says she's up for the challenge". Orange County Register. July 20, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  361. ^ "Trophies: Calder". NHL.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
  362. ^ Higham, John (1963). Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American nativism, 1860–1925. New York: Atheneum. OCLC 421752.
  363. ^ "Mexican Migrant Workers and Lynch Culture". University of Colorado Boulder. 2004. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008.
  364. ^ Williams, Rudi (December 8, 2006). "Hispanics Lose Staunchest Trumpeter for Fairness, Equality". Hispanic America USA. American Forces Press Service. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  365. ^ Wilson, Steven H. (2003). "Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits". History Cooperative. Archived from the original on September 30, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  366. ^