White South Africans

(Redirected from White South African)

White South Africans are South Africans of European descent. In linguistic, cultural, and historical terms, they are generally divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original colonists, known as Afrikaners, and the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists of South Africa. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, and 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue,[3][4] such as Portuguese, Greek, or German. White South Africans are by far the largest population of White Africans. White was a legally defined racial classification during apartheid.[5]

White South Africans
Density of white people in South Africa
Total population
2022 census: 4,639,268 (7.7% of South Africa's population)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Throughout South Africa, but mostly concentrated in urban areas. Population by provinces, as of the 2022 census:
Western Cape1,217,807
Eastern Cape403,061
Free State235,915
North West171,887
Northern Cape99,150
Afrikaans (60%), English (40%)
Christianity (85.6%), Irreligious (8.9%), Other (4.6%)
Related ethnic groups
White Zimbabweans, White Namibians, Afrikaners, French Huguenots, Germans, Coloureds, British diaspora in Africa, South African diaspora, other White Africans

Most Afrikaners trace their ancestry back to colonists in the mid-17th century and have developed a separate cultural identity, including a distinct language. The majority of English-speaking White South Africans trace their ancestry to the 1820 British, Irish, and Dutch colonists. The remainder of the White South African population consists of later immigrants from Europe such as Greeks, Norwegians and Jews from Lithuania and Poland. Portuguese immigrants arrived after the collapse of the Portuguese colonial administrations in Angola and Mozambique, although many also originate from Madeira.[6][7][8]



Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was the first European to explore Southern Africa.[9]

The history of white settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) under Jan van Riebeeck.[10] Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were also a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.[11] The Cape Colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by the United Kingdom around 1806.[12] At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European ancestry, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin.[12] However, the Dutch settlers grew into conflict with the British government over the abolition of the slave trade and limits on colonial expansion into African lands. In order to prevent a frontier war, the British Parliament decided to send British settlers to start farms on the eastern frontier.[13] Beginning in 1818 thousands of British settlers arrived in the growing Cape Colony, intending to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier.[12] Ironically most of the farms failed due to the difficult terrain, forcing the British settlers to encroach on African land in order to practise pastoralism.[13] About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland.[14] Nevertheless, the population of white ancestry (mostly European origin) continued increasing in the Cape as a result of settlement, and by 1865 had reached 181,592 people.[15] Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of Jews (mainly via Lithuania) and immigrants from Lebanon and Syria arriving in South Africa. Recent immigrants from the Levant region of Western Asia were originally classified as Asian, and thus "non-white", but, in order to have the right to purchase land, they successfully argued that they were "white". The main reason being that they were Caucasian and from the lands where Christianity and Judaism originated from, and that the race laws did not target Jews, who were also a Semitic people. Therefore arguing that if the laws targeted other people from the Levant, it should also affect the Jews.[16][17]

Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War

The first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, and by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.[16] The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Greece, and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid- to late twentieth century.[18] South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, and peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990.[19]

The number of white South Africans resident in their home country began gradually declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration.[19]

Whites continue to play a role in the South African economy and across the political spectrum.[citation needed] The current number of white South Africans is not exactly known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first non-racial elections in 1994. Just under a million white South Africans are also living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain.[citation needed]

Apartheid era


Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one. The Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance obviously is, or who is generally accepted as a white person, but does not include a person who, although in appearance obviously a white person, is generally accepted as a coloured person." Many criteria, both physical (e.g. examination of head and body hair) and social (e.g. eating and drinking habits, a native speaker of English, Afrikaans or another European language) were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured.[5] This was virtually extended to all those considered the children of two white persons, regardless of appearance.[citation needed] The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991.

Post-apartheid era


In an attempt at post-Apartheid redress, the Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation promotes employment of people (Black Africans, Indian, Chinese, Coloured and White population groups, as well as disabled people) according to the representation of their racial group as a proportion of the total South African population.[citation needed] Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders; private enterprises also must adhere to this legislation.[20] Some reports indicate a growing number of whites in poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws – a 2006 article in The Guardian stated that over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, and alluded to research claiming that up to 150,000 were struggling for survival.[21][22]

As a consequence of Apartheid policies, Whites are still widely regarded as being one of 4 defined race groups in South Africa. These groups (blacks, whites, Coloureds and Indians) still tend to have strong racial identities, and to identify themselves, and others, as members of these race groups[23][5] and the classification continues to persist in government policy due to attempts at redress like Black Economic Empowerment and Employment Equity.[5]

Diaspora and emigration


Since the 1990s, there has been a significant emigration of whites from South Africa. Between 1995 and 2005, more than one million South Africans emigrated, citing violence as the main reason, as well as the lack of employment opportunities for whites.[24]

Graeme Smith, former test captain of the South Africa national cricket team.

In recent decades, there has been a steady proportional decline in South Africa's white community, due to higher birthrates among other South African ethnic groups, as well as a high rate of emigration. In 1977, there were 4.3 million whites, constituting 16.4% of the population at the time. As of 2008, it was estimated that at least 800,000 white South Africans had emigrated since 1995.[25]

Like many other communities strongly affiliated with the West and Europe's colonial legacy in Africa, white South Africans were in the past often economically better off than their black African neighbours and have surrendered political dominance to majority rule. There were also some white Africans in South Africa who lived in poverty—especially during the 1930s and increasingly since the end of minority rule. Current estimates of white poverty in South Africa run as high as 12%, though fact-checking website Africa Check described these figures as "grossly inflated" and suggested that a more accurate estimate was that "only a tiny fraction of the white population – as few as 7,754 households – are affected."[26]

Lara Logan is a television and radio journalist and war correspondent.

The new phenomenon of white poverty is mostly blamed on the government's affirmative action employment legislation, which reserves 80% of new jobs for black people[27] and favours companies owned by black people (see Black Economic Empowerment). In 2010, Reuters stated that 450,000 whites live below the poverty line according to Solidarity and civil organisations,[28] with some research saying that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival.[29] However, the proportion of white South Africans living in poverty is still much lower than for other groups in the country, since approximately 50% of the general population fall below the upper-bound poverty line.[30]

A further concern has been crime. Some white South Africans living in affluent white suburbs, such as Sandton, have been affected by the 2008 13.5% rise in house robberies and associated crime.[31] In a study, Johan Burger, senior researcher at the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), said that criminals were specifically targeting wealthier suburbs. Burger explained that several affluent suburbs are surrounded by poorer residential areas and that inhabitants in the latter often target inhabitants in the former. The report also found that residents in wealthy suburbs in Gauteng were not only at more risk of being targeted but also faced an inflated chance of being murdered during the robbery.[32]

The global financial crisis slowed the high rates of white people emigrating overseas and has led to increasing numbers of white emigrants returning to live in South Africa. Charles Luyckx, CEO of Elliot International and a board member of the Professional Movers Association, stated in December 2008 that emigration numbers had dropped by 10% in the six months prior. Meanwhile, "people imports" had increased by 50%.[33]

Afrikaners in Pretoria

In May 2014, Homecoming Revolution estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans had returned to South Africa in the preceding decade.[34]

Furthermore, immigration from Europe has also supplemented the white population. The 2011 census found that 63,479 white people living in South Africa were born in Europe; of these, 28,653 had moved to South Africa since 2001.[35]

At the end of apartheid in 1994, 85% of South Africa's arable land was owned by whites.[36] The land reform program introduced after the end of apartheid intended that, within 20 years, 30% of white-owned commercial farm land should be transferred to black owners. Thus, in 2011, the farmers' association, Agri South Africa, coordinated efforts to resettle farmers throughout the African continent. The initiative offered millions of hectares from 22 African countries that hoped to spur development of efficient commercial farming.[37] The 30 percent target was not close to being met by the 2014 deadline.[38] According to a 2017 government audit, 72% of the nation's private farmland is owned by white people.[39] In February 2018, the Parliament of South Africa passed a motion to review the property ownership clause of the constitution, to allow for the expropriation of land, in the public interest, without compensation,[40] which was supported within South Africa's ruling African National Congress on the grounds that the land was originally seized by whites without just compensation.[41] In August 2018, the South African government began the process of taking two white-owned farmlands.[42] Western Cape ANC secretary Faiez Jacobs referred to the property clause amendment as a "stick" to force dialogue about the transfer of land ownership, with the hope of accomplishing the transfer "in a way that is orderly and doesn't create a 'them' and 'us' [situation]."[43]


White South Africans as a proportion of the total population
  •   0–20%
  •   20–40%
  •   40–60%
  •   60–80%
  •   80–100%
White South Africans by their native tongue[44]
Language Percent

The Statistics South Africa Census 2011 showed that there were about 4,586,838 white people in South Africa, amounting to 8.9% of the country's population.[45] This was a 6.8% increase since the 2001 census. According to the Census 2011, Afrikaans was the first language of 61% of White South Africans, while English was the first language of 36%.[4] The majority of white South Africans identify themselves as primarily South African, regardless of their first language or ancestry.[46][47]


Religion among White South Africans
Religion Percent

Approximately 87% of white South Africans are Christian, 9% are irreligious, and 1% are Jewish. The largest Christian denomination is the Dutch Reformed Church (NGK), with 23% of the white population being members. Other significant denominations are the Methodist Church (8%), the Roman Catholic Church (7%), and the Anglican Church (6%).[48]



Many white Africans of European ancestry have migrated to South Africa from other parts of the continent due to political or economic turmoil in their respective homelands. Thousands of Portuguese Mozambicans, Portuguese Angolans, and white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s. However, the overwhelming majority of European migration correlated with the historic colonization of the region (some migrating for the purpose of extraction of resources, minerals and other lucrative elements found in South Africa, others for a better life and farming opportunities without many restrictions in newly colonised lands).[citation needed]

Meanwhile, many white South Africans have also emigrated to Western countries over the past two decades, mainly to English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. However, the financial crisis has slowed the rate of emigration and in May 2014, the Homecoming Revolution estimated that around 340,000 white South Africans had returned in the preceding decade.[34]


Density of the White South African population.
  •   <1 /km²
  •   1–3 /km²
  •   3–10 /km²
  •   10–30 /km²
  •   30–100 /km²
  •   100–300 /km²
  •   300–1000 /km²
  •   1000–3000 /km²
  •   >3000 /km²
South Africa 2001 linguistic distribution of white people map

According to Statistics South Africa, white South Africans comprised 7.7% of the total population of South Africa in 2022. Their proportional share in municipalities may be higher than census figures indicate, given an undercount in the 2001 census.[49]

The following table shows the distribution of white people by province, according to the 2011 census:[4]

Province White pop. (2001) White pop. (2011) White pop. (2022) % province (2001) % province (2011) % province (2022) change 2001–2011 change 2011–2022 % total whites (2011) % total whites (2022)
Eastern Cape 305,837 310,450 403,061 4.9 4.7 5.6 -0.2   +0.9   6.8 8.9
Free State 238,789 239,026 235,915 8.8 8.7 8.0 -0.1   -0.7   5.2 5.2
Gauteng 1,768,041 1,913,884 1,509,800 18.8 15.6 10.0 -3.2   -5.6   41.7 33.5
KwaZulu-Natal 482,115 428,842 513,377 5.0 4.2 4.1 -0.8   -0.1   9.3 11.4
Limpopo 132,420 139,359 167,524 2.7 2.6 2.5 -0.1   -0.1   3.0 3.7
Mpumalanga 197,079 303,595 185,731 5.9 7.5 3.6 +1.6   -3.9   6.6 4.1
North West 233,935 255,385 171,887 7.8 7.3 4.5 -0.5   -2.8   5.6 3.8
Northern Cape 102,519 81,246 99,150 10.3 7.1 7.3 -3.2   +0.2   1.8 2.2
Western Cape 832,902 915,053 1,217,807 18.4 15.7 16.0 -2.7   +0.3   19.9 27.0
Total 4,293,640 4,586,838 4,504,252 9.6 8.9 7.3 -0.7   -1.6   100.0 100.0

2022 Census Accuracy Controversy


After the publication of the census results it was reported that the undercount rate was 31%[50] with the undercount rate being the highest in the Western Cape.[citation needed] The high undercount rate was reported as an issue of concern as it raised questions about the accuracy of the number of white, Indian, foreign-born and homeless people recorded in the census.[50]


Romanticised painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, founder of Cape Town.

White South Africans have a presence across the whole political spectrum from left to right.[citation needed]

Former South African President Jacob Zuma commented in 2009 on Afrikaners being "the only white tribe in a black continent or outside of Europe which is truly African", and said that "of all the white groups that are in South Africa, it is only the Afrikaners that are truly South Africans in the true sense of the word."[51] These remarks have led to the Centre for Constitutional Rights (CCR) laying a complaint with the Human Rights Commission against Zuma. According to the CCR's spokesman, Zuma's remarks constituted "unfair discrimination against non-Afrikaans-speaking, white South Africans....."[52]

In 2015, a complaint was investigated for hate speech against Jacob Zuma who said "You must remember that a man called Jan van Riebeeck arrived here on 6 April 1652, and that was the start of the trouble in this country."[53]

Former South African President Thabo Mbeki stated in one of his speeches to the nation that: "South Africa belongs to everyone who lives in it. Black and White."[54]

Prior to 1994, a white minority held complete political power under a system of racial segregation called apartheid. During apartheid, immigrants from Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were considered honorary whites in the country, as the government had maintained diplomatic relations with these countries. These were granted the same privileges as white people, at least for purposes of residence.[55] Some African Americans such as Max Yergan were granted an "honorary white" status as well.[56]



Historical population


Statistics for the white population in South Africa vary greatly. Most sources show that the white population peaked in the period between 1989 and 1995 at around 5.2 to 5.6 million. Up to that point, the white population largely increased due to high birth rates and immigration. Subsequently, between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s, the white population decreased overall. However, from 2006 to 2013, the white population increased.

Year White population % of total population Source
1701 1,265 - Cape Colony (excluding indentured servants)[57]
1795 14,292 - Cape Colony (excluding indentured servants)[57]
1904 1,116,805 21.6% 1904 Census
1911 1,270,000   22.7%   1911 Census[16]
1960 3,088,492   19.3%   1960 Census
1961 3,117,000   19.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1961
1962 3,170,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1962
1963 3,238,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1963
1964 3,323,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1964
1965 3,398,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1965
1966 3,481,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1966
1967 3,563,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1967
1968 3,639,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1968
1969 3,728,000   19.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1969
1970 3,792,848   17.1%   1970 Census
1971 3,920,000   17.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1971
1972 4,005,000   16.9%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1972
1973 4,082,000   16.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1973
1974 4,160,000   16.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1974
1975 4,256,000   16.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1975
1976 4,337,000   18.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1976
1977 4,396,000   17.9%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1977
1978 4,442,000   18.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1978
1979 4,485,000   18.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1979
1980 4,522,000   18.1%   1980 Census[19]
1981 4,603,000   18.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1981
1982 4,674,000   18.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1982
1983 4,748,000   18.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1983
1984 4,809,000   17.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1984
1985 4,867,000   17.5%   1985 Census[19]
1986 4,900,000   17.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1986
1991 5,068,300   13.4%   1991 Census
1992 5,121,000   13.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1992
1993 5,156,000   13.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1993
1994 5,191,000   12.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1994
1995 5,224,000   12.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1995
1996 4,434,697   10.9%   South African National Census of 1996
1997 4,462,200   10.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1997
1998 4,500,400   10.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1998
1999 4,538,727   10.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 1999
2000 4,521,664   10.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2000
2001 4,293,640   9.6%   South African National Census of 2001
2002 4,555,289   10.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2002
2003 4,244,346   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2003
2004 4,434,294   9.5%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2004
2005 4,379,800   9.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2005
2006 4,365,300   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2006
2007 4,352,100   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2007
2008 4,499,200   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2008
2009 4,472,100   9.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2009
2010 4,584,700   9.2%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2010
2011 4,586,838   8.9%   South African National Census of 2011
2013 4,602,400   8.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2013
2014 4,554,800   8.4%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2014
2015 4,534,000   8.3%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2015
2016 4,515,800   8.1%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2016
2017 4,493,500   8.0%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2017
2018 4,520,100   7.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2018
2019 4,652,006   7.9%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2019
2020 4,679,770   7.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2020
2021 4,662,459   7.8%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2021
2022 4,639,268   7.7%   Stats SA: Mid-year population estimates, 2022

Fertility rates


Contraception among white South Africans is stable or slightly falling: 80% used contraception in 1990, and 79% used it in 1998.[58] The following data shows some fertility rates recorded during South Africa's history. However, there are varied sources showing that the white fertility rate reached below replacement (2.1) by 1980. Likewise, recent studies show a range of fertility rates, ranging from 1.3 to 2.4. The Afrikaners tend to have a higher birthrate than that of other white people.[citation needed]

Year Total fertility rate[59] Source
1960 3.5   SARPN
1970 3.1   SARPN
1980 2.4   SARPN
1989 1.9   UN.org
1990 2.1   SARPN
1996 1.9   SARPN
1998 1.9   SARPN
2001[60] 1.8   hst.org.za
2006[60] 1.8   hst.org.za
2011 1.7   Census 2011

Life expectancy


The average life expectancy at birth for males and females

Year Average life expectancy Male life expectancy Female life expectancy
1980[61] 70.3 66.8 73.8
1985[62] 71 ? ?
1997 73.5 70 77
2009[63][64] 71 ? ?


Province White unemployment rate (strict)
Eastern Cape[65] 4.5%
Free State
Gauteng[66] 8.7%
KwaZulu-Natal[67] 8.0%
Limpopo[68] 8.0%
Mpumalanga[67] 7.5%
North West
Northern Cape[69] 4.5%
Western Cape 2.0%



Average annual household income by population group of the household head.[70][71]

Population group Average income (2015) Average income (2011) Average income (2001)
White R 444 446 (321.7%) R 365 134 (353.8%) R 193 820 (400.6%)
Indian/Asian R 271 621 (196.6%) R 251 541 (243.7%) R 102 606 (212.1%)
Coloured R 172 765 (125.0%) R 112 172 (108.7%) R 51 440 (106.3%)
African R 92 983 (67.3%) R 60 613 (58.7%) R 22 522 (46.5%)
Total R 138 168 (100%) R 103 204 (100%) R 48 385 (100%)

Percentage of workforce

Province Whites % of the workforce Whites % of population
Eastern Cape[65] 10% 4%
Free State
Gauteng[72] 25% 18%
KwaZulu-Natal[67] 11% 6%
Limpopo[68] 5% 2%
North West
Northern Cape[69] 19% 12%
Western Cape[73] 22% 18%


Language 2016 2011 2001 1996
Afrikaans 57.9% 60.8% 59.1% 57.7%
English 40.2% 35.9% 39.3% 38.6%
Other languages 1.9% 3.3% 1.6% 3.7%
Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%



Religion among white South Africans remains high compared to other white ethnic groups, but likewise it has shown a steady proportional drop in both membership and church attendance with until recently the majority of white South Africans attending regular church services.[citation needed]

Religious affiliation of white South Africans (2001 census)[74]
Religion Number Percentage (%)
– Christianity 3,726,266 86.8%
– Dutch Reformed churches 1,450,861 33.8%
Pentecostal/Charismatic/Apostolic churches 578,092 13.5%
Methodist Church 343,167 8.0%
Catholic Church 282,007 6.6%
Anglican Church 250,213 5.8%
– Other Reformed churches 143,438 3.3%
Baptist churches 78,302 1.8%
Presbyterian churches 74,158 1.7%
Lutheran churches 25,972 0.6%
– Other Christian churches 500,056 11.6%
Judaism 61,673 1.4%
Islam 8,409 0.2%
Hinduism 2,561 0.1%
No religion 377,007 8.8%
Other or undetermined 117,721 2.7%
Total 4,293,637 100%

Notable White South Africans


Science and technology




Royalty and aristocracy


Arts and media










See also



  1. ^ "census 2022". Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  2. ^ https://www.thepresidency.gov.za/download/file/fid/2889. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "South Africa – Community Survey 2016". www.datafirst.uct.ac.za. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 21. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d Posel, Deborah (2001). "What's in a name? Racial categorisations under apartheid and their afterlife" (PDF). Transformation: 50–74. ISSN 0258-7696. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2006.
  6. ^ Leonard, Thomas M. (18 October 2013). Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Routledge. p. 1707. ISBN 9781135205157.
  7. ^ Gertz, Genie; Boudreault, Patrick (5 January 2016). The SAGE Deaf Studies Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 242. ISBN 9781483346472.
  8. ^ Shimoni, Gideon (2003). Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa. ISBN 9781584653295.
  9. ^ "South Africa profile - Timeline - BBC News".
  10. ^ Hunt, John (2005). Campbell, Heather-Ann (ed.). Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652–1708. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 13–35. ISBN 978-1904744955.
  11. ^ Keegan, Timothy (1996). Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (1996 ed.). David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd. pp. 15–37. ISBN 978-0813917351.
  12. ^ a b c Lloyd, Trevor Owen (1997). The British Empire, 1558–1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 201–203. ISBN 978-0198731337.
  13. ^ a b Clark, Nancy L. (2016). South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. William H. Worger (3 ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-12444-8. OCLC 883649263.
  14. ^ Greaves, Adrian (2 September 2014). The Tribe that Washed its Spears: The Zulus at War (2013 ed.). Barnsley: Pen & Sword Military. pp. 36–55. ISBN 978-1629145136.
  15. ^ Census of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. 1865. HathiTrust Digital Library. 1866. p. 11. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  16. ^ a b c Shimoni, Gideon (2003). Community and Conscience: The Jews in Apartheid South Africa. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-1584653295.
  17. ^ "The Struggle Of The Christian Lebanese For Land Ownership In South Africa". Maronite Institute. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015.
  18. ^ Kriger, Robert; Kriger, Ethel (1997). Afrikaans Literature: Recollection, Redefinition, Restitution. Amsterdam: Rodopi BV. pp. 75–78. ISBN 978-9042000513.
  19. ^ a b c d "Population of South Africa by population group" (PDF). Dammam: South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. 2004. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  20. ^ "Redirecting old link". Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Simon Wood meets the people who lost most when Mandela won in South Africa". The Guardian. 22 January 2006. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  22. ^ "Foreign Correspondent – 30/05/2006: South Africa – Poor Whites". ABC. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  23. ^ Pillay, Kathryn (2019). "Indian Identity in South Africa". The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity. pp. 77–92. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-2898-5_9. ISBN 978-981-13-2897-8. S2CID 239275825.
  24. ^ Peet van Aardt (24 September 2006). "Million whites leave SA – study". 24.com. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  25. ^ White flight from South Africa | Between staying and going Archived 12 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist, 25 September 2008
  26. ^ Do 400,000 whites live in squatter camps in South Africa? No Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Africa Check, 22 May 2013
  27. ^ Wood, Simon (22 January 2006). "Race against time". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013. Certainly the new phenomenon of white poverty is often blamed on the government's Affirmative Action employment legislation, which reserves 80 per cent of new jobs for blacks.
  28. ^ O'Reilly, Finbarr (26 March 2010). "Tough times for white South African squatters". Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2013. At least 450,000 white South Africans, 10 percent of the total white population, live below the poverty line
  29. ^ Wood, Simon (22 January 2006). "Race against time". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 February 2013. some research claiming that up to 150,000 are destitute and struggling for survival
  30. ^ Africa, Statistics South. "Five facts about poverty in South Africa | Statistics South Africa". Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  31. ^ Fourie, Hilda (2 July 2008). "Criminals feel 'entitled' to steal". Beeld. Johannesburg. Retrieved 25 February 2013. According to the police's latest crime statistics, which were announced at the Union Buildings on Monday, house robberies had increased countrywide by 13.5%.
  32. ^ Fourie, Hilda (2 July 2008). "Criminals feel 'entitled' to steal". Beeld. Johannesburg. Retrieved 25 February 2013. According to the report, Gautengers who live in richer neighbourhoods "like Brooklyn, Garsfontein, Sandton, Honeydew and Douglasdale, have a bigger chance of being targeted or murdered in house robberies".
  33. ^ Coming Home The Times. 21 December 2008
  34. ^ a b Jane Flanagan (3 May 2014). "Why white South Africans are coming home". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  35. ^ "Community Profiles > Census 2011 > Migration". Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 31 August 2013.[dead link]
  36. ^ "Land Debate: The Facts Are on the Table". Agri SA. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  37. ^ "Boers are moving north — News — Mail & Guardian Online". Mg.co.za. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  38. ^ Cherryl Walker (2016). Pallotti, Arrigo; Engel, Ulf (eds.). South Africa after Apartheid: Policies and Challenges of the Democratic Transition. Leiden: Brill. p. 153. ISBN 9789004325593. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  39. ^ "South Africa begins seizing white-owned farms". The Washington Times.
  40. ^ Pather, Ra'eesa. "First step to land expropriation without compensation". The M&G Online. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  41. ^ "South Africa votes to seize land from white farmers". The Independent. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  42. ^ Eybers, Johan (19 August 2018). "Dispute after state authorised expropriation of farm". City Press.
  43. ^ Harper, Paddy; Whittles, Govan (2 March 2018). "ANC unity cracks over land issue". Mail and Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  44. ^ South African national census 2011
  45. ^ "Census 2011" (PDF). Statistics South Africa. 30 October 2012. p. 3. Retrieved 30 October 2012.[dead link]
  46. ^ Alexander, Mary (30 June 2006). "Black, white – or South African?". SAinfo. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2013. With 82% defining themselves as 'South African', whites identify with the country the most, followed by coloureds and Indians. Five percent of whites consider themselves to be Africans, while 4% identify themselves according to race and 2% according to language or ethnicity.
  47. ^ "A Nation in the Making: A Discussion Document on Macro-Social Trends in South Africa" (PDF). Government of South Africa. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  48. ^ "Table: Census 2001 by province, gender, religion recode (derived) and population group". Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 19 January 2016.[dead link]
  49. ^ "Where have all the whites gone?". Pretoria News. 8 October 2005. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  50. ^ a b Davis, Rebecca (12 October 2023). "How much can we rely on Census 2022?". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  51. ^ "Zuma: Afrikaners true S Africans". Retrieved 3 May 2010.
  52. ^ Zuma's Afrikaner remark before HRC The Times. 3 April 2009
  53. ^ David Smith (20 February 2015). "Jacob Zuma under investigation for using hate speech". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  54. ^ "Address of the then President of South Africa, Thabo Mbeki, at the celebration of Nelson Mandela's 90th Birthday". African National Congress Website. 19 July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  55. ^ Honorary Whites Archived 15 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, TIME, 19 January 1962
  56. ^ A chronicle of Apartheid's propaganda war on black America Archived 15 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, City Press, 25 August 2013
  57. ^ a b Ross, Robert (1975). "The `White' Population of South Africa in the Eighteenth Century". Population Studies. 29 (2): 217–230. doi:10.2307/2173508. hdl:1887/4261. ISSN 0032-4728.
  58. ^ "South Africa". SARPN. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  59. ^ "South Africa". SARPN. 17 December 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  60. ^ a b "Health Statistics". Health Systems Trust, South Africa. 2002. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006.
  61. ^ Susan De Vos. "Population and Development among Blacks in South Africa: A Review" (PDF). Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin. p. 34. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  62. ^ "Israel and the apartheid lie". Israel21c. 14 November 2004. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  63. ^ "Keynote address to the Civil Society Conference by Zwelinzima Vavi, General Secretary of COSATU". cosatu.org.za. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  64. ^ "South Africa: COSATU's Zwelinzima Vavi's Ruth First Memorial Lecture". LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  65. ^ a b "A profile of the Eastern Cape province: Demographics, poverty, inequality and unemployment" (PDF). PROVIDE Project. August 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  66. ^ "Gauteng life 'a mixed bag'". Fin24.com. 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010.
  67. ^ a b c "A Profile of the Mpumalanga Province: Demographics, Poverty, Income, Inequality and Unemployment from 2000 till 2007" (PDF). Elsenburg. February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  68. ^ a b "A profile of the Limpopo province: Demographics, poverty, inequality and unemployment" (PDF). PROVIDE Project. August 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  69. ^ a b "A profile of the Northern Cape province: Demographics, poverty, inequality and unemployment" (PDF). PROVIDE Project. August 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  70. ^ Living Conditions of Households in South Africa, 2014/2015 page 14
  71. ^ "Chart of the Week: How South Africa changed, and didn't, over Mandela's lifetime".
  72. ^ "A profile of Gauteng: Demographics, poverty, inequality and unemployment" (PDF). Elsenburg. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  73. ^ "A profile of the Western Cape province: Demographics, poverty, inequality and unemployment" (PDF). Elsenburg. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  74. ^ "Table: Census 2001 by province, gender, religion recode (derived) and population group". Census 2001. Statistics South Africa. Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  75. ^ Cobain, Ian (19 May 2011). "The rise of Glencore, the biggest company you've never heard of". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2011.