Islam (/ˈɪzlɑːm, ˈɪzlæm/ IZ-la(h)m;[7] Arabic: ٱلْإِسْلَام, romanizedal-Islām, IPA: [alʔɪsˈlaːm], lit.'submission [to the will of God]') is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centered on the Quran and the teachings of Muhammad, the religion's founder. Adherents of Islam are called Muslims, who are estimated to number approximately 1.9 billion worldwide and are the world's second-largest religious population after Christians.[8]

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
RegionMiddle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southeastern Europe[1]
LanguageQuranic Arabic
TerritoryMuslim world
Origin610 CE
Jabal al-Nour, Mecca, Hejaz, Arabian Peninsula
Separated fromArabian polytheism
Baháʼí Faith[4]
Druze Faith[5]
Number of followersc. 1.9 billion[6] Increase (individually referred to as Muslims, collectively referred to as the Ummah)

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets and messengers, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran to be the verbatim word of God and the unaltered, final revelation. Alongside the Quran, Muslims also believe in previous revelations, such as the Tawrat (the Torah), the Zabur (Psalms), and the Injil (Gospel). They believe that Muhammad is the main and final Islamic prophet, through whom the religion was completed. The teachings and normative examples of Muhammad, called the sunnah, documented in accounts called the hadith, provide a constitutional model for Muslims. Islam emphasizes that God is one and incomparable. It states that there will be a "Final Judgment" wherein the righteous will be rewarded in paradise (jannah) and the unrighteous will be punished in hell (jahannam). The Five Pillars—considered obligatory acts of worship—comprise the Islamic oath and creed (shahada); daily prayers (salah); almsgiving (zakat); fasting (sawm) in the month of Ramadan; and a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca. Islamic law, sharia, touches on virtually every aspect of life, from banking and finance and welfare to men's and women's roles and the environment. The two main religious festivals are Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. The three holiest sites in Islam are Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Prophet's Mosque in Medina, and al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.

The religion of Islam originated in Mecca in 610 CE. Muslims believe this is when Muhammad received his first revelation. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. Muslim rule expanded outside Arabia under the Rashidun Caliphate and the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate ruled from the Iberian Peninsula to the Indus Valley. In the Islamic Golden Age, specifically during the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, much of the Muslim world experienced a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various states and caliphates as well as extensive trade and religious conversion as a result of Islamic missionary activities (dawah), as well as through conquests.

The two main Islamic branches are Sunni Islam (85–90%) and Shia Islam (10–15%). While the Shia–Sunni divide initially arose from disagreements over the succession to Muhammad, they grew to cover a broader dimension, both theologically and juridically. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Approximately 12% of the world's Muslims live in Indonesia, the most populous Muslim-majority country; 31% live in South Asia; 20% live in the Middle East–North Africa; and 15% live in sub-Saharan Africa. Muslim communities are also present in the Americas, China, and Europe. Largely due to having a high proportion of young people, and a high fertility rate, Muslims are the world's fastest-growing major religious group.


In Arabic, Islam (Arabic: إسلام, lit.'submission [to God]')[9][10][11] is the verbal noun of Form IV originating from the verb سلم (salama), from the triliteral root س-ل-م (S-L-M), which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of submission, safeness, and peace.[12] In a religious context, it refers to the total surrender to the will of God.[13] A Muslim (مُسْلِم), the word for a follower of Islam,[14] is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter (to God)" or "one who surrenders (to God)". In the Hadith of Gabriel, Islam is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence).[15][16]

Islam itself was historically called Mohammedanism in the English-speaking world. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive, as it suggests that a human being, rather than God, is central to Muslims' religion.[17]

Articles of faith

The Islamic creed (aqidah) requires belief in six articles: God, angels, revelation, prophets, the Day of Resurrection, and the divine predestination.[18]


Calligraphy showing the word Allah in Arabic in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey

The central concept of Islam is tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد), the oneness of God. It is usually thought of as a precise monotheism, but is also panentheistic in Islamic mystical teachings.[19][20] God is seen as incomparable and without partners such as in the Christian Trinity, and associating partners to God or attributing God's attributes to others is seen as idolatory, called shirk. God is seen as transcendent of creation and so is beyond comprehension. Thus, Muslims are not iconodules and do not attribute forms to God. God is instead described and referred to by several names or attributes, the most common being Ar-Rahmān (الرحمان) meaning "The Entirely Merciful," and Ar-Rahīm (الرحيم) meaning "The Especially Merciful" which are invoked at the beginning of most chapters of the Quran.[21][22]

Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is,"[i][9] and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[23] He is viewed as a personal god[9] and there are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God. Consciousness and awareness of God is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is a term with no plural or gender being ascribed to it and is also used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews in reference to God, whereas ʾilāh (إله) is a term used for a deity or a god in general.[24]


A 16th century Siyer-i Nebi image of the angel Gabriel visiting Muhammad

Angels (Arabic: ملك, malak) are beings described in the Quran[25] and hadith.[26] They are described as created to worship God and also to serve in other specific duties such as communicating revelations from God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are described as being created variously from 'light' (nūr)[27][28][29] or 'fire' (nār).[30][31][32][33] Islamic angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.[34][35][36][37] Common characteristics for angels include a lack of bodily needs and desires, such as eating and drinking.[38] Some of them, such as Gabriel (Jibrīl) and Michael (Mika'il), are mentioned by name in the Quran. Angels play a significant role in literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.[26] Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy.[39]


A Quran manuscript resting on a rehal, a book rest for the holy text

The pre-eminent holy text of Islam is the Quran. Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God, through the archangel Gabriel, on multiple occasions between 610 CE[40][41] and 632, the year Muhammad died.[42] While Muhammad was alive, these revelations were written down by his companions, although the primary method of transmission was orally through memorization.[43] The Quran is divided into 114 chapters (sūrah) which contain a combined 6,236 verses (āyāt). The chronologically earlier chapters, revealed at Mecca, are concerned primarily with spiritual topics, while the later Medinan chapters discuss more social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community.[9][44] Muslim jurists consult the hadith ('accounts'), or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[45][46] In addition to its religious significance, the Quran is widely regarded as the finest work in Arabic literature,[47][48] and has influenced art and the Arabic language.[49]

Islam also holds that God has sent revelations, called wahy, to different prophets numerous times throughout history. However, Islam teaches that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, such as the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel), have become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both,[50][51][52][53] while the Quran (lit. 'Recitation') is viewed as the final, verbatim and unaltered word of God.[44][54][55][56]


A 15th century[57] Persian miniature depicting Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer

Prophets (Arabic: أنبياء, anbiyāʾ) are believed to have been chosen by God to preach a divine message. Some of these prophets additionally deliver a new book and are called "messengers" (رسول‎, rasūl).[58] Muslims believe prophets are human and not divine. All of the prophets are said to have preached the same basic message of Islam – submission to the will of God – to various nations in the past, and this is said to account for many similarities among religions. The Quran recounts the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others.[9][59] The stories associated with the prophets beyond the Quranic accounts are collected and explored in the Qisas al-Anbiya (Stories of the Prophets).

Muslims believe that God sent Muhammad as the final prophet ("Seal of the prophets") to convey the completed message of Islam.[60][61] In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah (literally "trodden path"). Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's moral behaviors in their daily lives, and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran.[62][63][64][65] This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which are accounts of his words, actions, and personal characteristics. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as God's verbatim words quoted by Muhammad that are not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. There are various methodologies to classify the authenticity of hadiths, with the commonly used grading grading scale being "authentic" or "correct" (صحيح, ṣaḥīḥ); "good" (حسن, ḥasan); or "weak" (ضعيف, ḍaʻīf), among others. The Kutub al-Sittah are a collection of six books, regarded as the most authentic reports in Sunni Islam. Among them is Sahih al-Bukhari, often considered by Sunnis to be one of the most authentic sources after the Quran.[66] Another well-known source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference.[67][68]

Resurrection and judgment

The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, where Islamic tradition says Isa (Jesus, seen as an Islamic prophet) will appear close to the Day of Judgment

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection" or Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة) is also crucial for Muslims. It is believed that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God, but unknown to man. The Quran and the hadith, as well as the commentaries of scholars, describe the trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah. The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death.[69][70][71]

On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all humankind will be judged by their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell).[72] The Quran in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as: "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it." The Quran lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell. However, the Quran makes it clear that God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he wishes. Good deeds, like charity, prayer, and compassion towards animals[73] will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Quranic references describing its features. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[74][75][76] Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين "Day of Religion");[ii] as-Sāʿah (الساعة "the Last Hour");[iii] and al-Qāriʿah (القارعة "The Clatterer").[iv]

Divine predestination

The concept of divine predestination in Islam (Arabic: القضاء والقدر, al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar) means that every matter, good or bad, is believed to have been decreed by God. Al-qadar, meaning "power", derives from a root that means "to measure" or "calculating".[77][78][79][80] Muslims often express this belief in divine destiny with the phrase "In-sha-Allah" (Arabic: إن شاء الله) meaning "if God wills" when speaking on future events.[81]

Acts of worship

There are five acts of worship that are considered duties – the Shahada (declaration of faith), the five daily prayers, Zakat (alms-giving), fasting during Ramadan and the Hajj pilgrimage – collectively known as "The Pillars of Islam" (Arkān al-Islām).[82] In addition, Muslims also perform other optional supererogatory acts that are encouraged but not considered to be duties.[83]

Declaration of faith

Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, c. 16th century, inscribed with the Shahadah

The shahadah[84] is an oath declaring belief in Islam. The expanded statement is "ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh" (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله), or, "I testify that there is no deity except God and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God."[85] Islam is sometimes argued to have a very simple creed with the shahada being the premise for the rest of the religion. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the shahada in front of witnesses.[86][87]


Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus

Prayer in Islam, called as-salah or aṣ-ṣalāt (Arabic: الصلاة), is seen as a personal communication with God and consists of repeating units called rakat that include bowing and prostrating to God. There are five timed prayers each day that are considered duties. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language and performed in the direction of the Kaaba. The act also requires a state of ritual purity achieved by means of either a routine wudu ritual wash or, in certain circumstances, a ghusl full body ritual wash.[88][89][90][91]

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also an important social center for the Muslim community. For example, the Masjid an-Nabawi ("Prophetic Mosque") in Medina, Saudi Arabia, used to also serve as a shelter for the poor.[92] Minarets are towers used to call the adhan, a vocal call to signal the prayer time.[93][94]


A slot for giving zakat at the Zawiya of Moulay Idris II in Fez, Morocco

Zakat (Arabic: زكاة, zakāh), also spelled Zakāt or Zakah, is a type of almsgiving characterized by the giving of a fixed portion (2.5% annually)[95] of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy, such as for freeing captives, those in debt, or for (stranded) travellers, and for those employed to collect zakat. It acts as a form of welfare in Muslim societies.[96] It is considered a religious obligation that the well-off owe the needy because their wealth is seen as a trust from God's bounty,[97] and is seen as a purification of one's excess wealth.[98] The total annual value contributed due to zakat is 15 times greater than global humanitarian aid donations, using conservative estimates.[99] Sadaqah, as opposed to Zakat, is a much-encouraged optional charity.[100][101] A waqf is a perpetual charitable trust, which finances hospitals and schools in Muslim societies.[102]


A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates.

In Islam, fasting (Arabic: صوم, ṣawm) precludes food and drink, as well as other forms of consumption, such as smoking, and is performed from dawn to sunset. During the month of Ramadan, it is considered a duty for Muslims to fast.[103] The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God by restraining oneself for God's sake from what is otherwise permissible and to think of the needy. In addition, there are other days, such as the Day of Arafah, when fasting is optional.[104]


Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season

The Islamic pilgrimage, called the "ḥajj" (Arabic: حج), is to be done at least once a lifetime by every Muslim with the means to do so during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Rituals of the Hajj mostly imitate the story of the family of Abraham. In Mecca, pilgrims walk seven times around the Kaaba, which Muslims believe Abraham built as a place of worship, and they walk seven times between Mount Safa and Marwa, recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar, who was looking for water for her baby Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.[105][106][107] The pilgrimage also involves spending a day praying and worshipping in the plain of Mount Arafat as well as symbolically stoning the Devil.[108] All Muslim men wear only two simple white unstitched pieces of cloth called ihram, intended to bring continuity through generations and uniformity among pilgrims despite class or origin.[109][110] Another form of pilgrimage, Umrah, is optional and can be undertaken at any time of the year. Other sites of Islamic pilgrimage are Medina, where Muhammad died, as well as Jerusalem, a city of many Islamic prophets and the site of Al-Aqsa, which was the direction of prayer before Mecca.[111][112]

Other acts of worship

Muslim men reading the Quran

Muslims recite and memorize the whole or parts of the Quran as acts of virtue. Tajwid refers to the set of rules for the proper elocution of the Quran.[113] Many Muslims recite the whole Quran during the month of Ramadan.[114] One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz ("memorizer"), and hadiths mention that these individuals will be able to intercede for others on Judgment Day.[115]

Supplication to God, called in Arabic duʿāʾ (Arabic: دعاء IPA: [dʊˈʕæːʔ]) has its own etiquette such as raising hands as if begging.[116]

Remembrance of God (ذكر, Dhikr') refers to phrases repeated referencing God. Commonly, this includes Tahmid, declaring praise be due to God (الحمد لله, al-Ḥamdu lillāh) during prayer or when feeling thankful, Tasbih, declaring glory to God during prayer or when in awe of something and saying 'in the name of God' (بسملة, basmalah) before starting an act such as eating.[117]


A panoramic view of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina, Hejaz region, today's Saudi Arabia, the second most sacred mosque in Islam

Muhammad and the beginning of Islam (570–632)

Cave of Hira

According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE and was orphaned early in life. Growing up as a trader, he became known as the "trusted one" (Arabic: الامين) and was sought after as an impartial arbitrator. He later married his employer, the businesswoman Khadija.[118] In the year 610 CE, troubled by the moral decline and idolatry prevalent in Mecca and seeking seclusion and spiritual contemplation, Muhammad retreated to the Cave of Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca. It was during his time in the cave that he is said to have received the first revelation of the Quran from the angel Gabriel.[119] The event of Muhammad's retreat to the cave and subsequent revelation is known as the "Night of Power" (Laylat al-Qadr) and is considered a significant event in Islamic history. During the next 22 years of his life, from age 40 onwards, Muhammad continued to receive revelations from God, becoming the last or seal of the prophets sent to mankind.[50][51][120]

"Muhammad at the Ka'ba" from the Siyer-i Nebi.[121] Muhammad is shown with veiled face, c. 1595.

During this time, while in Mecca, Muhammad preached first in secret and then in public, imploring his listeners to abandon polytheism and worship one God. Many early converts to Islam were women, the poor, foreigners, and slaves like the first muezzin Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi.[122] The Meccan elite felt Muhammad was destabilizing their social order by preaching about one God and giving questionable ideas to the poor and slaves because they profited from the pilgrimages to the idols of the Kaaba.[123][124]

After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans, Muhammad and his companions performed the Hijra ("emigration") in 622 to the city of Yathrib (current-day Medina). There, with the Medinan converts (the Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (the Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. The Constitution of Medina was signed by all the tribes of Medina. This established religious freedoms and freedom to use their own laws among the Muslim and non-Muslim communities as well as an agreement to defend Medina from external threats.[125] Meccan forces and their allies lost against the Muslims at the Battle of Badr in 624 and then fought an inconclusive battle in the Battle of Uhud[126] before unsuccessfully besieging Medina in the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627). In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims, but it was broken by Mecca two years later. As more tribes converted to Islam, Meccan trade routes were cut off by the Muslims.[127][128] By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at age 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity.[129][40]

Early Islamic period (632–750)

Expansion of Rashidun Caliphate
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna

Muhammad died in 632 and the first successors, called CaliphsAbu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and sometimes Hasan ibn Ali[130] – are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").[131] Some tribes left Islam and rebelled under leaders who declared themselves new prophets but were crushed by Abu Bakr in the Ridda wars.[132][133][134][135][136] Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and heretics and taxed heavily, often helped Muslims take over their lands,[137] resulting in rapid expansion of the caliphate into the Persian and Byzantine empires.[138][139][140][141] Uthman was elected in 644 and his assassination by rebels led to Ali being elected the next Caliph. In the First Civil War, Muhammad's widow, Aisha, raised an army against Ali, attempting to avenge the death of Uthman, but was defeated at the Battle of the Camel. Ali attempted to remove the governor of Syria, Mu'awiya, who was seen as corrupt. Mu'awiya then declared war on Ali and was defeated in the Battle of Siffin. Ali's decision to arbitrate angered the Kharijites, an extremist sect, who felt that by not fighting a sinner, Ali became a sinner as well. The Kharijites rebelled and were defeated in the Battle of Nahrawan but a Kharijite assassin later killed Ali. Ali's son, Hasan ibn Ali, was elected Caliph and signed a peace treaty to avoid further fighting, abdicating to Mu'awiya in return for Mu'awiya not appointing a successor.[142] Mu'awiya began the Umayyad dynasty with the appointment of his son Yazid I as successor, sparking the Second Civil War. During the Battle of Karbala, Husayn ibn Ali was killed by Yazid's forces; the event has been annually commemorated by Shias ever since. Sunnis, led by Ibn al-Zubayr and opposed to a dynastic caliphate, were defeated in the siege of Mecca. These disputes over leadership would give rise to the Sunni-Shia schism,[143] with the Shia believing leadership belongs to Muhammad's family through Ali, called the ahl al-bayt.[144] Abu Bakr's leadership oversaw the beginning of the compilation of the Quran. The Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz set up the committee, The Seven Fuqaha of Medina,[145][146] and Malik ibn Anas wrote one of the earliest books on Islamic jurisprudence, the Muwatta, as a consensus of the opinion of those jurists.[147][148][149] The Kharijites believed there was no compromised middle ground between good and evil, and any Muslim who committed a grave sin would become an unbeliever. The term "kharijites" would also be used to refer to later groups such as ISIS.[150] The Murji'ah taught that people's righteousness could be judged by God alone. Therefore, wrongdoers might be considered misguided, but not denounced as unbelievers.[151] This attitude came to prevail into mainstream Islamic beliefs.[152]

The Umayyad dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh.[153] The Umayyads struggled with a lack of legitimacy and relied on a heavily patronized military.[154] Since the jizya tax was a tax paid by non-Muslims which exempted them from military service, the Umayyads denied recognizing the conversion of non-Arabs, as it reduced revenue.[152] While the Rashidun Caliphate emphasized austerity, with Umar even requiring an inventory of each official's possessions,[155] Umayyad luxury bred dissatisfaction among the pious.[152] The Kharijites led the Berber Revolt, leading to the first Muslim states independent of the Caliphate. In the Abbasid Revolution, non-Arab converts (mawali), Arab clans pushed aside by the Umayyad clan, and some Shi'a rallied and overthrew the Umayyads, inaugurating the more cosmopolitan Abbasid dynasty in 750.[156][157]

Classical era (750–1258)

Al-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.[158] During the early Abbasid era, scholars such as Muhammad al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj compiled the major Sunni hadith collections while scholars like Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh compiled major Shia hadith collections. The four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki, and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i. In contrast, the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq formed the Ja'fari jurisprudence. In the 9th century, Al-Tabari completed the first commentary of the Quran, the Tafsir al-Tabari, which became one of the most cited commentaries in Sunni Islam. Some Muslims began questioning the piety of indulgence in worldly life and emphasized poverty, humility, and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri inspired a movement that would evolve into tasawwuf or Sufism.[159][160]

At this time, theological problems, notably on free will, were prominently tackled, with Hasan al Basri holding that although God knows people's actions, good and evil come from abuse of free will and the devil.[161][a] Greek rationalist philosophy influenced a speculative school of thought known as Muʿtazila, who famously advocated the notion of free-will originated by Wasil ibn Ata.[163] Caliph Mamun al Rashid made it an official creed and unsuccessfully attempted to force this position on the majority.[164] Caliph Al-Mu'tasim carried out inquisitions, with the traditionalist Ahmad ibn Hanbal notably refusing to conform to the Muʿtazila idea that the Quran was created rather than being eternal, which resulted in him being tortured and kept in an unlit prison cell for nearly thirty months.[165] However, other schools of speculative theologyMāturīdism founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi and Ash'ari founded by Al-Ash'ari – were more successful in being widely adopted. Philosophers such as Al-Farabi, Avicenna and Averroes sought to harmonize Aristotle's ideas with the teachings of Islam, similar to later scholasticism within Christianity in Europe and Maimonides' work within Judaism, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against such syncretism and ultimately prevailed.[166][167]

The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200

This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".[168][169][170][171][139] Islamic scientific achievements spanned a wide range of subject areas including medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and agriculture as well as physics, economics, engineering and optics.[172][173][174][175] Avicenna was a pioneer in experimental medicine,[176][177] and his The Canon of Medicine was used as a standard medicinal text in the Islamic world and Europe for centuries. Rhazes was the first to identify the diseases smallpox and measles.[178] Public hospitals of the time issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.[179][180] Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist", in particular regarding his work in optics.[181][182][183] In engineering, the Banū Mūsā brothers' automatic flute player is considered to have been the first programmable machine.[184] In mathematics, the concept of the algorithm is named after Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, who is considered a founder of algebra, which is named after his book al-jabr, while others developed the concept of a function.[185] The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.[186] Guinness World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university.[187] Many non-Muslims, such as Christians, Jews and Sabians,[188] contributed to the Islamic civilization in various fields,[189][190] and the institution known as the House of Wisdom employed Christian and Persian scholars to both translate works into Arabic and to develop new knowledge.[191][188][192]

Soldiers broke away from the Abbasid empire and established their own dynasties, such as the Tulunids in 868 in Egypt[193] and the Ghaznavid dynasty in 977 in Central Asia.[194] In this fragmentation came the Shi'a Century, roughly between 945 and 1055, which saw the rise of the millennialist Isma'ili Shi'a missionary movement. One Isma'ili group, the Fatimid dynasty, took control of North Africa in the 10th century[195] and another Isma'ili group, the Qarmatians, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, a rock placed within the Kaaba, in their unsuccessful rebellion.[196] Yet another Isma'ili group, the Buyid dynasty, conquered Baghdad and turned the Abbasids into a figurehead monarchy. The Sunni Seljuk dynasty campaigned to reassert Sunni Islam by promulgating the scholarly opinions of the time, notably with the construction of educational institutions known as Nezamiyeh, which are associated with Al-Ghazali and Saadi Shirazi.[197]

The expansion of the Muslim world continued with religious missions converting Volga Bulgaria to Islam. The Delhi Sultanate reached deep into the Indian Subcontinent and many converted to Islam,[198] in particular low-caste Hindus whose descendants make up the vast majority of Indian Muslims.[199] Trade brought many Muslims to China, where they virtually dominated the import and export industry of the Song dynasty.[200] Muslims were recruited as a governing minority class in the Yuan dynasty.[201]

Pre-Modern era (1258–18th century)

Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam. 14th-century depiction

Through Muslim trade networks and the activity of Sufi orders,[202] Islam spread into new areas[203] and Muslims assimilated into new cultures.

Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe.[204] Conversion to Islam often involved a degree of syncretism,[205] as illustrated by Muhammad's appearance in Hindu folklore.[206] Muslim Turks incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism beliefs to Islam.[b][208] Muslims in Ming Dynasty China who were descended from earlier immigrants were assimilated, sometimes through laws mandating assimilation,[209] by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study.[210][211]

Cultural shifts were evident with the decrease in Arab influence after the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate.[212] The Muslim Mongol Khanates in Iran and Central Asia benefited from increased cross-cultural access to East Asia under Mongol rule and thus flourished and developed more distinctively from Arab influence, such as the Timurid Renaissance under the Timurid dynasty.[213] Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) proposed the mathematical model that was later argued to be adopted by Copernicus unrevised in his heliocentric model,[214] and Jamshīd al-Kāshī's estimate of pi would not be surpassed for 180 years.[215]

After the introduction of gunpowder weapons, large and centralized Muslim states consolidated around gunpowder empires, these had been previously splintered amongst various territories. The caliphate was claimed by the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire and its claims were strengthened in 1517 as Selim I became the ruler of Mecca and Medina.[216] The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran.[217] In South Asia, Babur founded the Mughal Empire.[218]

The religion of the centralized states of the gunpowder empires influenced the religious practice of their constituent populations. A symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism strongly influenced Islamic reign by the Ottomans from the beginning. The Mevlevi Order and Bektashi Order had a close relation to the sultans,[219] as Sufi-mystical as well as heterodox and syncretic approaches to Islam flourished.[220] The often forceful Safavid conversion of Iran to the Twelver Shia Islam of the Safavid Empire ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shia Islam. Persian migrants to South Asia, as influential bureaucrats and landholders, helped spread Shia Islam, forming some of the largest Shia populations outside Iran.[221] Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Twelverism into Sunni Islam as a fifth madhhab, called Ja'farism,[222] which failed to gain recognition from the Ottomans.[223]

Modern era (18th–20th centuries)

Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.

Earlier in the 14th century, Ibn Taymiyya promoted a puritanical form of Islam,[224] rejecting philosophical approaches in favor of simpler theology,[224] and called to open the gates of itjihad rather than blind imitation of scholars.[225] He called for a jihad against those he deemed heretics,[226] but his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime.[227] During the 18th century in Arabia, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, influenced by the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim, founded a movement called Wahhabi to return to what he saw as unadultered Islam.[228][229] He condemned many local Islamic customs, such as visiting the grave of Muhammad or saints, as later innovations and sinful[229][230] and destroyed sacred rocks and trees, Sufi shrines, the tombs of Muhammad and his companions and the tomb of Husayn at Karbala, a major Shia pilgrimage site.[230][231][232] He formed an alliance with the Saud family, which, by the 1920s, completed their conquest of the area that would become Saudi Arabia.[230][233] Ma Wanfu and Ma Debao promoted salafist movements in the 19th century such as Sailaifengye in China after returning from Mecca but were eventually persecuted and forced into hiding by Sufi groups.[234] Other groups sought to reform Sufism rather than reject it, with the Senusiyya and Muhammad Ahmad both waging war and establishing states in Libya and Sudan respectively.[235] In India, Shah Waliullah Dehlawi attempted a more conciliatory style against Sufism and influenced the Deobandi movement.[236] In response to the Deobandi movement, the Barelwi movement was founded as a mass movement, defending popular Sufism and reforming its practices.[237][238]

The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially compared to non-Muslim European powers. Earlier, in the 15th century, the Reconquista succeeded in ending the Muslim presence in Iberia. By the 19th century, the British East India Company had formally annexed the Mughal dynasty in India.[239] As a response to Western Imperialism, many intellectuals sought to reform Islam.[240] Islamic modernism, initially labelled by Western scholars as Salafiyya, embraced modern values and institutions such as democracy while being scripture oriented. Notable forerunners in the movement include Muhammad 'Abduh and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani.[241] Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam.[242][243] Similar to contemporary codification, sharia was for the first time partially codified into law in 1869 in the Ottoman Empire's Mecelle code.[244]

The Ottoman Empire dissolved after World War I, the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished in 1924[245] and the subsequent Sharifian Caliphate fell quickly,[246][247][248] thus leaving Islam without a Caliph.[248] Pan-Islamists attempted to unify Muslims and competed with growing nationalist forces, such as pan-Arabism.[249][250] The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of Muslim-majority countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.[251]

Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants (mostly from India and Indonesia) to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.[252] Migration from Syria and Lebanon contributed to the Muslim population in Latin America.[253] The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith,[254] likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914.[255]

Contemporary era (20th century–present)

Leaders of Muslim countries during session of the Islamic Summit Conference in Istanbul, Turkey

Forerunners of Islamic modernism influenced Islamist political movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood and related parties in the Arab world,[256][257] which performed well in elections following the Arab Spring,[258] Jamaat-e-Islami in South Asia and the AK Party, which has democratically been in power in Turkey for decades. In Iran, revolution replaced a secular monarchy with an Islamic state. Others such as Sayyid Rashid Rida broke away from Islamic modernists[259] and pushed against embracing what he saw as Western influence.[260] The group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant would even attempt to recreate the modern gold dinar as their monetary system. While some of those who broke away were quietist, others believed in violence against those opposing them, even against other Muslims.[261]

In opposition to Islamic political movements, in 20th century Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments, and headscarves were legally restricted, as also happened in Tunisia.[262][263] In other places, religious authority was co-opted and is now often seen as puppets of the state. For example, in Saudi Arabia, the state monopolized religious scholarship[264] and, in Egypt, the state nationalized Al-Azhar University, previously an independent voice checking state power.[265] Salafism was funded in the Middle East for its quietism.[266] Saudi Arabia campaigned against revolutionary Islamist movements in the Middle East, in opposition to Iran.[267]

Muslim minorities of various ethnicities have been persecuted as a religious group.[268] This has been undertaken by communist forces like the Khmer Rouge, who viewed them as their primary enemy to be exterminated since their religious practice made them stand out from the rest of the population,[269] the Chinese Communist Party in Xinjiang[270] and by nationalist forces such as during the Bosnian genocide.[271] Myanmar military's Tatmadaw targeting of Rohingya Muslims has been labeled as a crime against humanity by the UN and Amnesty International,[272][273] while the OHCHR Fact-Finding Mission identified genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other crimes against humanity.[274]

The advancement of global communication has facilitated the widespread dissemination of religious knowledge. The adoption of the hijab has grown more common[275] and some Muslim intellectuals are increasingly striving to separate scriptural Islamic beliefs from cultural traditions.[276] Among other groups, this access to information has led to the rise of popular "televangelist" preachers, such as Amr Khaled, who compete with the traditional ulema in their reach and have decentralized religious authority.[277][278] More "individualized" interpretations of Islam[279] notably involve Liberal Muslims who attempt to align religious traditions with contemporary secular governance,[280][281] an approach that has been criticized by some regarding its compatibility.[282][283] Moreover, secularism is perceived as a foreign ideology imposed by invaders and perpetuated by post-colonial ruling elites,[284] and is frequently understood to be equivalent to anti-religion.[285]


Muslim distribution worldwide, based on latest available data[286]
World percentage of Muslims by country

As of 2020, about 24% of the global population, or about 1.9 billion people, are Muslims.[6][8][287][288][289][290] In 1900, this estimate was 12.3%,[291] in 1990 it was 19.9%[254] and projections suggest the proportion will be 29.7% by 2050.[292] The Pew Research Center estimates that 87–90% of Muslims are Sunni and 10–13% are Shia.[293] Approximately 49 countries are Muslim-majority,[294][295][296][297][298][299] with 62% of the world's Muslims living in Asia, and 683 million adherents in Indonesia,[300] Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh alone.[301][302][303] Arab Muslims form the largest ethnic group among Muslims in the world,[304] followed by Bengalis[305][306] and Punjabis.[307] Most estimates indicate China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).[308][309] Islam in Europe is the second-largest religion after Christianity in many countries, with growth rates due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005,[310] accounting for 4.9% of all of Europe's population in 2016.[311]

Religious conversion has no net impact on the Muslim population growth as "the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith."[312] Although, Islam is expected to experience a modest gain of 3 million through religious conversion between 2010 and 2050, mostly from Sub Saharan Africa (2.9 million).[313][314]

According to a report by CNN, "Islam has drawn converts from all walks of life, most notably African-Americans".[315] In Britain, around 6,000 people convert to Islam per year and, according to an article in the British Muslims Monthly Survey, the majority of new Muslim converts in Britain were women.[316] According to The Huffington Post, "observers estimate that as many as 20,000 Americans convert to Islam annually", most of them being women and African-Americans.[317][318]

By both percentage and total numbers, Islam is the world's fastest growing major religious group, and is projected to be the world's largest by the end of the 21st century, surpassing that of Christianity.[319][292] It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims relative to other religious groups."[292]

Main branches or denominations


The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books

Sunni Islam, or Sunnism, is the name for the largest denomination in Islam.[320][321][322] The term is a contraction of the phrase "ahl as-sunna wa'l-jamaat", which means "people of the sunna (the traditions of Muhammad) and the community".[323] Sunnis, or sometimes Sunnites, believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad and primarily reference six major hadith works for legal matters, while following one of the four traditional schools of jurisprudence: Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Shafi'i.[324][325]

The adherents of Sunni Islam are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the Sunnah and the community") or ahl as-Sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism.[326] Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam",[327][328][329] though some scholars view this as inappropriate, and many non-Sunnis may find this offensive.[330]

Traditionalist theology is a Sunni school of thought, prominently advocated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE), that is characterized by its adherence to a textualist understanding of the Quran and the sunnah, the belief that the Quran is uncreated and eternal, and opposition to speculative theology, called kalam, in religious and ethical matters.[331] Mu'tazilism is a Sunni school of thought inspired by Ancient Greek Philosophy. Maturidism, founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944 CE), asserts that scripture is not needed for basic ethics and that good and evil can be understood by reason alone,[332] but people rely on revelation, for matters beyond human's comprehension. Ash'arism, founded by Al-Ashʿarī (c. 874–936), holds that ethics can derive just from divine revelation but accepts reason regarding exegetical matters and combines Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalist ideas.[333]

Salafism is a revival movement advocating the return to the practices of the earliest generations of Muslims. In the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a Salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism, in modern-day Saudi Arabia.[334] A similar movement called Ahl al-Hadith also de-emphasized the centuries' old Sunni legal tradition, preferring to directly follow the Quran and Hadith. The Nurcu Sunni movement was by Said Nursi (1877–1960);[335] it incorporates elements of Sufism and science.[335][336]


Nahj al-balagha, collection of sermons, letters, and sayings attributed to Imam Ali.

Shia Islam, or Shi'ism, is the second-largest Muslim denomination.[337][338][293] Shias, or Shiites, believe that Muhammad's successor as leader, must be from certain descendants of Muhammad's family known as the Ahl al-Bayt and those leaders, referred to as Imams, have additional spiritual authority.[339][340] According to both Sunni and Shia Muslims, a significant event took place at Ghadir Khumm during Muhammad's return from his final pilgrimage to Mecca. According to Sunnism, Muhammad appointed his cousin Ali as the executor of his last will and testament, as well as his Wali (authority) at Ghadir Khumm.[341][342] Shias recognise that Muhammad designated Ali as his successor (khalīfa) and Imam (spiritual and political leader) after him, but was prevented from succeeding Muhammad as the leader of the Muslims as a result of the choice made by some of Muhammad's other companions (ṣaḥāba) at Saqifah.[343] This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunnism, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor before his death and consider Abū Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of Muhammad's other companions at Saqifah, to be the first rightful (rāshidūn) caliph after Muhammad.[344]

Some of the first Shia Imams are revered by all Shia and Sunnis Muslims, such as Ali. Later events such as Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī's martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala further influenced the development of Shīʿa Islam, contributing to the formation of a distinct religious sect with its own rituals and shared collective memory.[345]

According to the sixth Shia Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, the Imam Ali Shrine is the third of five holy places: Mecca, Medina, Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf, Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine in Qom.[346] Both Sunni and Shia Muslims agree on the three holiest sites in Islam being, respectively, the Masjid al-Haram (including the Kaaba), in Mecca; the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, in Medina; and the Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, in Jerusalem. Some of the most revered Shia sites include Najaf and Karbala, in Iraq, and Mashhad and Qom, in Iran.[347][348] Religious sources quote several hadiths that highlight the importance of the Imam Ali Shrine (Najaf), Imam Husayn Shrine (Karbala) and Imam Reza Shrine (Mashhad):

God chose that land [Najaf] as the abode of the Prophets. I swear to God that no one more honourable than the Commander of the Believers [Ali] has ever lived there after (the time of) his purified fathers, Ādam and Nūh.[349]

Karbalā, where your grandson and his family will be killed, is the most blessed and the most sacred land on Earth and it is one of the valleys of Paradise.[350]

— Gabriel

One of my own flesh and blood [Reza] will be buried in the land of Khorasan [Mashhad]. God the Highest will surely remove the sorrows of any sorrowful person who goes on pilgrimage to his shrine. God will surely forgive the sins of any sinful person who goes on pilgrimage to his shrine.[351]

— Muhammad
Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf, the third holiest place for Shia Muslims after Mecca and Medina.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala, a holy site for Shia Muslims.
Imam Reza shrine, the world's largest mosque, in Mashhad, Iran. 25 million Shias visiting the shrine each year.

Twelvers, the largest Shia branch and most influential, believe in Twelve Imams, the last of whom went into occultation to return one day. They recognise that the prophecy of the Twelve Imams has been foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors which is recorded by both Sunni and Shia sources.[352] Zaidism rejects special powers of Imams and are sometimes considered a 'fifth school' of Sunni Islam rather than a Shia denomination.[353][354] They differed with other Shias over the status of the fifth imam and are sometimes known as "Fivers".[355] The Isma'ilis split with the Twelvers over who was the seventh Imam and have split into more groups over the status of successive Imams, with the largest group being the Nizaris.[356]


Ibadi Islam or Ibadism is practised by 1.45 million Muslims around the world (~0.08% of all Muslims), most of them in Oman.[357] Ibadism is often associated with and viewed as a moderate variation of the kharijites, though Ibadis themselves object to this classification. The kharijites were groups that rebelled against Caliph Ali for his acceptance of arbitration with someone they viewed as a sinner. Unlike most kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. Ibadi hadiths, such as the Jami Sahih collection, use chains of narrators from early Islamic history they consider trustworthy, but most Ibadi hadiths are also found in standard Sunni collections and contemporary Ibadis often approve of the standard Sunni collections.[358]

An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam

Other denominations

Non-denominational Muslims

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.[376][377] Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response.[378][379][380] The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identifies in this way.[381]


The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Sufism in Konya, Turkey

Sufism (Arabic: تصوف, tasawwuf), is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find a direct personal experience of God. Classical Sufi scholars defined tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", through "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[382][383][384][385] It is not a sect of Islam, and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Isma'ilism, whose teachings are rooted in Gnosticism and Neoplatonism[386] as well as by the Illuminationist and Isfahan schools of Islamic philosophy, has developed mystical interpretations of Islam.[387] Hasan al-Basri, the early Sufi ascetic often portrayed as one of the earliest Sufis,[388] emphasized fear of failing God's expectations of obedience. In contrast, later prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi, emphasized religiosity based on love towards God. Such devotion would also have an impact on the arts, with Rumi still one of the bestselling poets in America.[389][390]

Sufis see tasawwuf as an inseparable part of Islam.[391] Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet.[392][391] Historian Nile Green argued that Islam in the Medieval period was more or less Sufism.[393] Followers of the Sunni revivalist movement known as Salafism have viewed popular devotional practices, such as the veneration of Sufi saints, as innovations from the original religion. Salafists have sometimes physically attacked Sufis, leading to a deterioration in Sufi–Salafi relations.[394]

Sufi congregations form orders (tariqa) centered around a teacher (wali) who traces a spiritual chain back to Muhammad.[395] Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities.[159] The Sufism-influenced Ahle Sunnat movement or Barelvi movement claims over 200 million followers in South Asia.[396][397][398] Sufism is prominent in Central Asia,[399][400] as well as in African countries like Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad and Niger.[381][401]

Law and jurisprudence

Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.[324][402] It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations.[403][404] The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.[324]

Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (Hadith and Sira), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus).[405] Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad.[403] Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law,ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics.[403] Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories called ahkam: mandatory (fard), recommended (mustahabb), permitted (mubah), abhorred (makruh), and prohibited (haram).[403][404] Forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam[406] and, in criminal law, while imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is considered permissible, forgiving the offender is better. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded as the peak of excellence.[407] Some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.[404]

Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Their legal opinions (fatwa) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law.[403][404] In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.[404] The Ottoman Empire's 19th century Tanzimat reforms led to the Mecelle civil code and represented the first attempt to codify sharia.[244] While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.[404] Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.[404][408] The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for complete implementation of sharia.[404][408] The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.[409][410]

Schools of jurisprudence

Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world

A school of jurisprudence is referred to as a madhhab (Arabic: مذهب). The four major Sunni schools are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools while the three major Shia schools are the Ja'fari, Zaidi and Isma'ili schools. Each differs in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh ("principles of jurisprudence"). The conformity in following of decisions by a religious expert or school is called taqlid. The term ghair muqallid refers to those who do not use taqlid and, by extension, do not have a madhab.[411] The practice of an individual interpreting law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad.[412]


Religious personages

Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)

Islam has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. Imam (إمام) is the religious title used to refer to an Islamic leadership position, often in the context of conducting an Islamic worship service.[413] Religious interpretation is presided over by the 'ulama (Arabic: علماء), a term used describe the body of Muslim scholars who have received training in Islamic studies. A scholar of the hadith is called a muhaddith, a scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (فقيه), a jurist who is qualified to issue legal opinions or fatwas is called a mufti, and a qadi is an Islamic judge. Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh, mullah and mawlawi. Some Muslims also venerate saints associated with miracles (كرامات, karāmāt).[414]


In Islamic economic jurisprudence, hoarding of wealth is reviled and thus monopolistic behavior is frowned upon.[415] Attempts to comply with sharia has led to the development of Islamic banking. Islam prohibits riba, usually translated as usury, which refers to any unfair gain in trade and is most commonly used to mean interest.[416] Instead, Islamic banks go into partnership with the borrower, and both share from the profits and any losses from the venture. Another feature is the avoidance of uncertainty, which is seen as gambling[417] and Islamic banks traditionally avoid derivative instruments such as futures or options which has historically protected them from market downturns.[418] The Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphate used to be involved in distribution of charity from the treasury, known as Bayt al-mal, before it became a largely individual pursuit around the year 720. The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, distributed zakat as one of the first examples of a guaranteed minimum income, with each citizen getting 10 to 20 dirhams annually.[419] During the reign of the second Caliph Umar, child support was introduced and the old and disabled were entitled to stipends,[420][421] while the Umayyad Caliph Umar II assigned a servant for each blind person and for every two chronically ill persons.[422]

Jihad means "to strive or struggle [in the way of God]" and, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation".[423] Shias in particular emphasize the "greater jihad" of striving to attain spiritual self-perfection[424][425][426] while the "lesser jihad" is defined as warfare.[427][428] When used without a qualifier, jihad is often understood in its military form.[423][424] Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.[427][428] Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare.[429] Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[428] For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such, is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 CE.[430][431]

Daily and family life

Islamic veils represent modesty

Many daily practices fall in the category of adab, or etiquette. Specific prohibited foods include pork products, blood and carrion. Health is viewed as a trust from God and intoxicants, such as alcoholic drinks, are prohibited.[432] All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, except for game that one has hunted or fished for oneself.[433][434][435] Beards are often encouraged among men as something natural[436] and body modifications, such as permanent tattoos, are usually forbidden as violating the creation.[c][438] Silk and gold are prohibited for men in Islam to maintain a state of sobriety.[439] Haya, often translated as "shame" or "modesty", is sometimes described as the innate character of Islam[440] and informs much of Muslim daily life. For example, clothing in Islam emphasizes a standard of modesty, which has included the hijab for women. Similarly, personal hygiene is encouraged with certain requirements.[441]

A Muslim couple

In Islamic marriage, the groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr).[442][443][444] Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous.[445][446] Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny and can have up to four wives simultaneously. Islamic teachings strongly advise that if a man cannot ensure equal financial and emotional support for each of his wives, it is recommended that he marry just one woman. One reason cited for polygyny is that it allows a man to give financial protection to multiple women, who might otherwise not have any support (e.g. widows). However, the first wife can set a condition in the marriage contract that the husband cannot marry another woman during their marriage.[447][448] There are also cultural variations in weddings.[449] Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands, is prohibited in Islam.[450]

Shia Muslim girls studying the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, Iran

After the birth of a child, the adhan is pronounced in the right ear.[451] On the seventh day, the aqiqah ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor.[452] The child's head is shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of its hair is donated to the poor.[452] Male circumcision, called khitan,[453] is often practised in the Muslim world.[454][455] Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age is a religious obligation.[456]

A dying Muslim is encouraged to pronounce the Shahada as their last words.[457] Paying respects to the dead and attending funerals in the community are considered among the virtuous acts. In Islamic burial rituals, burial is encouraged as soon as possible, usually within 24 hours. The body is washed, except for martyrs, by members of the same gender and enshrouded in a garment that must not be elaborate called kafan.[458] A "funeral prayer" called Salat al-Janazah is performed. Wailing, or loud, mournful outcrying, is discouraged. Coffins are often not preferred and graves are often unmarked, even for kings.[459]

Arts and culture

The term "Islamic culture" can be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people.[460] Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims,[461] sometimes referred to as "Islamicate".[462]

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts including fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others.[463][464] While the making of images of animate beings has often been frowned upon in connection with laws against idolatry, this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods. This stricture has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation, and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.[465] Additionally, the depiction of Muhammad is a contentious issue among Muslims.[466] In Islamic architecture, varying cultures show influence such as North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan containing marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,[467] while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles.[468]

The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar that begins with the Hijra of 622 CE, a date that was reportedly chosen by Caliph Umar as it was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes.[469] Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, meaning they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage).[470][82]

Cultural Muslims are religiously non-practicing individuals who still identify with Islam due to family backgrounds, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up.[471][472]

Influences on other religions

Some movements, such as the Druze,[473][474][475] Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam, and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial.[476] The Druze faith further split from Isma'ilism as it developed its own unique doctrines, and finally separated from both Ismāʿīlīsm and Islam altogether; these include the belief that the Imam Al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh was God incarnate.[477][478] Yazdânism is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century.[479] Bábism stems from Twelver Shia passed through Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad i-Shirazi al-Bab while one of his followers Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri Baha'u'llah founded the Baháʼí Faith.[480] Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late 15th century Punjab, primarily incorporates aspects of Hinduism, with some Islamic influences.[481]


John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.[482]

Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages. Early criticism came from Jewish authors, such as Ibn Kammuna, and Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry, often explaining it in apocalyptic terms.[483]

Christian writers criticized Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise. Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in the Gospel of Matthew. Catholic theologian Augustine of Hippo's doctrines led to the broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife. [484]

Defamatory images of Muhammad, derived from early 7th century depictions of the Byzantine Church,[485] appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri.[486] Here, Muhammad is depicted in the eighth circle of hell, along with Ali. Dante does not blame Islam as a whole but accuses Muhammad of schism, by establishing another religion after Christianity.[486]

Other criticisms center on the treatment of individuals within modern Muslim-majority countries, including issues related to human rights, particularly in relation to the application of Islamic law.[487] Furthermore, in the wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized.[488]

See also



  1. ^ "Hasan al Basri is often considered one of the first who rejected an angelic origin for the devil, arguing that his fall was the result of his own free-will, not God's determination. Hasan al Basri also argued that angels are incapable of sin or errors and nobler than humans and even prophets. Both early Shias and Sunnis opposed his view.[162]
  2. ^ "In recent years, the idea of syncretism has been challenged. Given the lack of authority to define or enforce an Orthodox doctrine about Islam, some scholars argue there had no prescribed beliefs, only prescribed practise, in Islam before the 16th century.[207]
  3. ^ Some Muslims in dynastic era China resisted footbinding of girls for the same reason.[437]

Quran and hadith

  1. ^ Quran 2:117
  2. ^ Quran 1:4;
  3. ^ Quran 6:31;
  4. ^ Quran 101:1


  1. ^ Center, Pew Research (30 April 2013). "The World's Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Archived from the original on 25 October 2023. Retrieved 20 March 2024.
  2. ^ Welch, Alford T.; Moussalli, Ahmad S.; Newby, Gordon D. (2009). "Muḥammad". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^ Bausani, A. (1999). "Bāb". Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.
  4. ^ Van der Vyer, J.D. (1996). Religious human rights in global perspective: religious perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 449. ISBN 90-411-0176-4.
  5. ^ Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne (2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9780199862634.
  6. ^ a b "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 9 March 2024.
  7. ^ "English pronunciation of Islam". Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  8. ^ a b "Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project - Research and data from Pew Research Center". 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  9. ^ a b c d e Schimmel, Annemarie. "Islam". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Definition of Islam |". Archived from the original on 9 May 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  11. ^ Haywood, John (2002). Historical Atlas of the Medieval World (AD 600 - 1492) (1st ed.). Spain: Barnes & Noble, Inc. p. 3.13. ISBN 0-7607-1975-6.
  12. ^ "Siin Archived 7 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Lane's Lexicon 4. – via StudyQuran.
  13. ^ Lewis, Barnard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2009). Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton School Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-13-223085-8.
  14. ^ "Muslim." Lexico. UK: Oxford University Press. 2020.
  15. ^ Esposito (2000), pp. 76–77.
  16. ^ Mahmutćehajić, Rusmir (2006). The mosque: the heart of submission. Fordham University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8232-2584-2.
  17. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton (1969). Mohammedanism: an historical survey. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780195002454. Modern Muslims dislike the terms Mohammedan and Mohammedanism, which seem to them to carry the implication of worship of Mohammed, as Christian and Christianity imply the worship of Christ.
  18. ^ Beversluis, Joel, ed. (2011). Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality. New World Library. pp. 68–9. ISBN 9781577313328. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  19. ^ "Tawhid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  20. ^ Gimaret, D. "Tawḥīd". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012). doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7454
  21. ^ Ali, Kecia; Leaman, Oliver (2008). Islam : the key concepts. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7. OCLC 123136939.
  22. ^ Campo (2009), p. 34, "Allah".
  23. ^ Leeming, David. 2005. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-15669-0. p. 209.
  24. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  25. ^ Burge (2015), p. 23.
  26. ^ a b Burge (2015), p. 79.
  27. ^ "Nūr Archived 23 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. – via
  28. ^ Hartner, W.; Tj Boer. "Nūr". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012). doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0874
  29. ^ Elias, Jamal J. "Light". In McAuliffe (2003). doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQSIM_00261
  30. ^ Campo, Juan E. "Nar". In Martin (2004).. – via
  31. ^ Fahd, T. "Nār". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012). doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0846
  32. ^ Toelle, Heidi. "Fire". In McAuliffe (2002). doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQSIM_00156
  33. ^ McAuliffe (2003), p. 45
  34. ^ Burge (2015), pp. 97–99.
  35. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 26–28
  36. ^ Webb, Gisela. "Angel". In McAuliffe (n.d.).
  37. ^ MacDonald, D. B.; Madelung, W. "Malāʾika". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012).doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0642
  38. ^ Çakmak (2017), p. 140.
  39. ^ Burge (2015), p. 22.
  40. ^ a b Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. "Muhammad". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  41. ^ Watt, William Montgomery (2003). Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-17587-6. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  42. ^ Esposito (2004), pp. 17–18, 21.
  43. ^ Al Faruqi, Lois Ibsen (1987). "The Cantillation of the Qur'an". Asian Music (Autumn – Winter 1987): 3–4.
  44. ^ a b Ringgren, Helmer. "Qurʾān". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2021. "The word Quran was invented and first used in the Quran itself. There are two different theories about this term and its formation."
  45. ^ "Tafsīr". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  46. ^ Esposito (2004), pp. 79–81.
  47. ^ Jones, Alan (1994). The Koran. London: Charles E. Tuttle Company. p. 1. ISBN 1842126091. Its outstanding literary merit should also be noted: it is by far, the finest work of Arabic prose in existence.
  48. ^ Arberry, Arthur (1956). The Koran Interpreted. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 191. ISBN 0684825074. It may be affirmed that within the literature of the Arabs, wide and fecund as it is both in poetry and in elevated prose, there is nothing to compare with it.
  49. ^ Kadi, Wadad, and Mustansir Mir. "Literature and the Quran." In Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an 3. pp. 213, 216.
  50. ^ a b Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5
  51. ^ a b Peters (2003), p. 9
  52. ^ Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. "Muhammad". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  53. ^ Hava Lazarus-Yafeh. "Tahrif". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  54. ^ Teece (2003), pp. 12–13
  55. ^ Turner (2006), p. 42
  56. ^ Bennett (2010), p. 101.
  57. ^ "BnF. Département des Manuscrits. Supplément turc 190". Bibliothèque nationale de France. Archived from the original on 9 September 2023. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
  58. ^ Esposito (2003), p. 225
  59. ^ Reeves, J. C. (2004). Bible and Qurʼān: Essays in scriptural intertextuality. Leiden: Brill. p. 177. ISBN 90-04-12726-7. Archived from the original on 19 April 2023. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  60. ^ Esposito, John L. 2009. "Islam." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5. (See also: quick reference Archived 10 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine.) "Profession of Faith...affirms Islam's absolute monotheism and acceptance of Muḥammad as the messenger of Allah, the last and final prophet."
  61. ^ Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5. (See also: quick reference Archived 26 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine.) "[T]he Muslims' understanding of Allāh is based...on the Qurʿān's public witness. Allāh is Unique, the Creator, Sovereign, and Judge of mankind. It is Allāh who directs the universe through his direct action on nature and who has guided human history through his prophets, Abraham, with whom he made his covenant, Moses/Moosa, Jesus/Eesa, and Muḥammad, through all of whom he founded his chosen communities, the 'Peoples of the Book.'"
  62. ^ Martin (2004), p. 666
  63. ^ J. Robson. "Hadith". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  64. ^ D.W. Brown. "Sunna". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  65. ^ Goldman, Elizabeth (1995). Believers: Spiritual Leaders of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-19-508240-1.
  66. ^ al-Rahman, Aisha Abd, ed. 1990. Muqaddimah Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ. Cairo: Dar al-Ma'arif, 1990. pp. 160–69
  67. ^ Awliya'i, Mustafa. "The Four Books Archived 12 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine." In Outlines of the Development of the Science of Hadith 1, translated by A. Q. Qara'i. – via Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  68. ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar. "The Hadith §The Four Books (Al-Kutubu'l-Arb'ah) Archived 12 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine." Ch 4 in The Qur'an and Hadith. Tanzania: Bilal Muslim Mission. – via Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  69. ^ Glassé (2003), pp. 382–383, "Resurrection"
  70. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012), "Avicenna". doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_DUM_0467: "Ibn Sīnā, Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sīnā is known in the West as 'Avicenna'."
  71. ^ Gardet, L. "Qiyama". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  72. ^ Esposito, John L. (ed.). "Eschatology". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2017 – via Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  73. ^ Esposito (2011), p. 130.
  74. ^ Smith (2006), p. 89; Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, p. 565
  75. ^ Afsaruddin, Asma. "Garden". In McAuliffe (n.d.).
  76. ^ "Paradise". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  77. ^ "Andras Rajki's A. E. D. (Arabic Etymological Dictionary)". 2002. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  78. ^ Cohen-Mor (2001), p. 4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen": Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us..."
  79. ^ Karamustafa, Ahmet T. "Fate". In McAuliffe (n.d.).: The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  80. ^ Gardet, L. "al-Ḳaḍāʾ Wa 'l-Ḳadar". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012). doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0407
  81. ^ "Muslim beliefs – Al-Qadr". Bitesize – GCSE – Edexcel. BBC. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  82. ^ a b "Pillars of Islam | Islamic Beliefs & Practices | Britannica". 3 May 2023. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  83. ^ ZAROUG, ABDULLAHI HASSAN (1985). "THE CONCEPT OF PERMISSION, SUPEREROGATORY ACTS AND ASETICISM [sic] IN ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE". Islamic Studies. 24 (2): 167–180. ISSN 0578-8072. JSTOR 20847307. Archived from the original on 7 December 2022. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  84. ^ Nasr (2003), pp. 3, 39, 85, 270–272.
  85. ^ Mohammad, N. 1985. "The doctrine of jihad: An introduction." Journal of Law and Religion 3(2):381–97.
  86. ^ Kasim, Husain. "Islam". In Salamone (2004), pp. 195–197.
  87. ^ Galonnier, Juliette. "Moving In or Moving Toward? Reconceptualizing Conversion to Islam as a Liminal Process1". Moving In and Out of Islam, edited by Karin van Nieuwkerk, New York, US: University of Texas Press, 2021, pp. 44-66. Archived 28 December 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  88. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 18, 19
  89. ^ Hedayetullah (2006), pp. 53–55
  90. ^ Kobeisy (2004), pp. 22–34
  91. ^ Momen (1987), p. 178
  92. ^ Mattson, Ingrid (2006). "Women, Islam, and Mosques". In R. S. Keller and R. R. Ruether (eds.). Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Volume 2, Part VII. Islam. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 615–629. ISBN 978-0-253-34687-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  93. ^ Pedersen, J., R. Hillenbrand, J. Burton-Page, et al. 2010. "Masd̲j̲id." Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  94. ^ "Mosque". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  95. ^ Ahmed, Medani, and Sebastian Gianci. "Zakat." p. 479 in Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy.
  96. ^ Ariff, Mohamed (1991). The Islamic Voluntary Sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the Economic Development of Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-981-3016-07-1. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  97. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 109-110: This is not regarded as charity because it is not really voluntary but instead is owed, by those who have received their wealth as a trust from God's bounty, to the poor.
  98. ^ Ridgeon, Lloyd (2003). Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present. United Kingdom: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 258. ISBN 9780415297967. Aside from its function of purifying believers' wealth, the payment of zakat may have contributed in no small way to the economic welfare of the Muslim community in Mecca.
  99. ^ "A faith-based aid revolution in the Muslim world". The New Humanitarian. 1 June 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2023.
  100. ^ Said, Abdul Aziz; et al. (2006). Contemporary Islam: Dynamic, Not Static. Taylor & Francis. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-415-77011-8. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  101. ^ Stefon (2010), p. 72.
  102. ^ Hudson, A. (2003). Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.). London: Cavendish Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 1-85941-729-9.
  103. ^ "Ramadan". Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 16 August 2023.
  104. ^ Ramadanali (2006). Fasting In Islam And The Month Of Ramadan. United States: Tughra Books. p. 51. ISBN 9781597846110.
  105. ^ Goldschmidt & Davidson (2005), p. 48
  106. ^ Farah (1994), pp. 145–147
  107. ^ "Hajj". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  108. ^ Peters, F.E. (2009). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4008-2548-6. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  109. ^ Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). Voices of Islam: Voices of tradition. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-275-98733-6. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  110. ^ Glassé (2003), p. 207
  111. ^ Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V. (eds.). The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. Vol. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 0918720583. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  112. ^ Trofimov, Yaroslav. 2008. The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine. Knopf. New York. ISBN 978-0-307-47290-8. p. 79.
  113. ^ Aboo Yahyaa (2013). Foundation of Tajweed (2 ed.). p. 1.
  114. ^ Stefon (2010), p. 42–43.
  115. ^ Nigosian (2004), p. 70.
  116. ^ Armstrong, Lyall (2016). The Quṣṣāṣ of Early Islam. Netherlands: Brill. p. 184. ISBN 9789004335523.
  117. ^ "alhamdulillah". Lexico. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  118. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 6.
  119. ^ Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. "Muhammad". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  120. ^ "Muhammad". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  121. ^ "Ottomans : religious painting". Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  122. ^ Rabah, Bilal B. Encyclopedia of Islam.
  123. ^ Ünal, Ali (2006). The Qurʼan with Annotated Interpretation in Modern English. Tughra Books. pp. 1323–. ISBN 978-1-59784-000-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  124. ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis (1977), p. 36
  125. ^ Serjeant (1978), p. 4.
  126. ^ Peter Crawford (16 July 2013), The War of the Three Gods: Romans, Persians and the Rise of Islam, Pen & Sword Books Limited, p. 83, ISBN 9781473828650, archived from the original on 28 December 2023, retrieved 5 August 2022.
  127. ^ Peters (2003), pp. 78–79, 194
  128. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp. 23–28
  129. ^ Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. "Muhammad". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  130. ^ Melchert, Christopher (2020). "The Rightly Guided Caliphs: The Range of Views Preserved in Ḥadīth". In al-Sarhan, Saud (ed.). Political Quietism in Islam: Sunni and Shi'i Practice and Thought. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-1-83860-765-4. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  131. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 40.
  132. ^ Holt & Lewis (1977), p. 57
  133. ^ Hourani (2002), p. 22
  134. ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 32
  135. ^ Madelung (1996), p. 43
  136. ^ Ṭabāṭabāʼī (1979), pp. 30–50
  137. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 38.
  138. ^ Holt & Lewis (1977), p. 74
  139. ^ a b Gardet & Jomier (2012)
  140. ^ J. Kuiper, Matthew (2021). Da'wa: A Global History of Islamic Missionary Thought and Practice. Edinburgh University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9781351510721.
  141. ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.
  142. ^ Holt & Lewis (1977), pp. 67–72.
  143. ^ Harney, John (3 January 2016). "How Do Sunni and Shia Islam Differ?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  144. ^ Waines (2003), p. 46.
  145. ^ Ismāʻīl ibn ʻUmar Ibn Kathīr (2012), p. 505.
  146. ^ Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz By Imam Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam died 214 AH 829 C.E. Publisher Zam Zam Publishers Karachi, pp. 54–59
  147. ^ Noel James Coulson (1964). History of Islamic Law. King Abdulaziz Public Library. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7486-0514-9. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  148. ^ Houtsma, M.T.; Wensinck, A.J.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Gibb, H.A.R.; Heffening, W., eds. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Volume V: L—Moriscos (reprint ed.). Brill Publishers. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-90-04-09791-9. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  149. ^ Moshe Sharon, ed. (1986). Studies in Islamic History and Civilization: In Honour of Professor David Ayalon. BRILL. p. 264. ISBN 9789652640147. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  150. ^ Mamouri, Ali (8 January 2015). "Who are the Kharijites and what do they have to do with IS?". Al-monitor. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  151. ^ Blankinship (2008), p. 43.
  152. ^ a b c Esposito (2010), p. 87.
  153. ^ Puchala, Donald (2003). Theory and History in International Relations. Routledge. p. 137.
  154. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 45.
  155. ^ Al-Biladhuri, Ahmad Ibn Jabir; Hitti, Philip (1969). Kitab Futuhu'l-Buldan. AMS Press. p. 219.
  156. ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 56.
  157. ^ Lewis (1993), pp. 71–83.
  158. ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 86.
  159. ^ a b Schimmel, Annemarie. "Sufism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  160. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp. 90, 91.
  161. ^ Blankinship (2008), pp. 38–39.
  162. ^ Omar Hamdan Studien zur Kanonisierung des Korantextes: al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrīs Beiträge zur Geschichte des Korans Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 2006 ISBN 978-3447053495 pp. 291–292 (German)
  163. ^ Blankinship (2008), p. 50.
  164. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 88.
  165. ^ Doi, Abdur Rahman (1984). Shariah: The Islamic Law. London: Ta-Ha Publishers. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-907461-38-8.
  166. ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 160
  167. ^ Waines (2003), pp. 126–127
  168. ^ Holt & Lewis (1977), pp. 80, 92, 105
  169. ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis (1977), pp. 661–663
  170. ^ Lapidus (2002), p. 56
  171. ^ Lewis (1993), p. 84
  172. ^ King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–55. doi:10.1086/353360. ISSN 0021-1753. S2CID 144315162.
  173. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. 1996. "Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century." Pp. 351–99 in Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, edited by S. S. Al-Attas. Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  174. ^ "Contributions of Islamic scholars to the scientific enterprise" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 May 2023. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  175. ^ "The greatest scientific advances from the Muslim world". February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 December 2022. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  176. ^ Jacquart, Danielle (2008). "Islamic Pharmacology in the Middle Ages: Theories and Substances". European Review (Cambridge University Press) 16: 219–227.
  177. ^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  178. ^ "Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes) (c. 865-925)". Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  179. ^ Alatas, Syed Farid (2006). "From Jami'ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue". Current Sociology. 54 (1): 112–132. doi:10.1177/0011392106058837. S2CID 144509355. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  180. ^ Imamuddin, S.M. (1981). Muslim Spain 711–1492 AD. Brill Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-04-06131-6.
  181. ^ Toomer, G. J. (December 1964). "Review Work: Matthias Schramm (1963) Ibn Al-Haythams Weg zur Physik". Isis. 55 (4): 464. JSTOR 228328. Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham's] achievement in the development of scientific method.
  182. ^ Al-Khalili, Jim (4 January 2009). "The 'first true scientist'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  183. ^ Gorini, Rosanna (October 2003). "Al-Haytham the man of experience. First steps in the science of vision" (PDF). Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine. 2 (4): 53–55. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
  184. ^ Koetsier, Teun (May 2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators". Mechanism and Machine Theory. 36 (5): 589–603. doi:10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2.
  185. ^ Katz, Victor J.; Barton, Bill (18 September 2007). "Stages in the History of Algebra with Implications for Teaching". Educational Studies in Mathematics. 66 (2): 185–201. doi:10.1007/s10649-006-9023-7. S2CID 120363574.
  186. ^ Ahmed (2006), pp. 23, 42, 84
  187. ^ Young, Mark (1998). The Guinness Book of Records. Bantam. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-553-57895-9.
  188. ^ a b Brague, Rémi (2009). The Legend of the Middle Ages: Philosophical Explorations of Medieval Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. University of Chicago Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780226070803. Neither were there any Muslims among the Ninth-Century translators. Amost all of them were Christians of various Eastern denominations: Jacobites, Melchites, and, above all, Nestorians... A few others were Sabians.
  189. ^ Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh Univ. Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3, p.4
  190. ^ Rémi Brague, Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  191. ^ Meri, Josef W. and Jere L. Bacharach. "Medieval Islamic Civilization". Vol. 1 Index A–K Archived 28 December 2023 at the Wayback Machine. 2006, p. 304.
  192. ^ Saliba, George. 1994. A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-8023-7. pp. 245, 250, 256–57.
  193. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (2004). The Crusader States and Their Neighbours, 1098–1291. Pearson Longman. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-582-36931-3. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  194. ^ Levi, Scott Cameron; Sela, Ron, eds. (2010). Islamic Central Asia: an anthology of historical sources. Indiana University Press. p. 83.
  195. ^ Neue Fischer Weltgeschichte "Islamisierung in Zentralasien bis zur Mongolenzeit" Band 10: Zentralasien, 2012, p. 191 (German)
  196. ^ Glubb, John Bagot. "Mecca (Saudi Arabia)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  197. ^ Andreas Graeser Zenon von Kition: Positionen u. Probleme Walter de Gruyter 1975 ISBN 978-3-11-004673-1 p. 260
  198. ^ Arnold (1896), pp. 227–228.
  199. ^ "Why are many Indian Muslims seen as untouchable?". BBCnews. 10 May 2016. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  200. ^ "Islam in China". BBC. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  201. ^ Lipman, Jonathan Newman (1997). Familiar Strangers, a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-295-97644-0.
  202. ^ Arnold (1896), pp. 125–258.
  203. ^ "The Spread of Islam" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  204. ^ "Ottoman Empire". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  205. ^ Adas, Michael, ed. (1993). Islamic and European Expansion. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 25.
  206. ^ Metcalf, Barbara (2009). Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 104.
  207. ^ Peacock (2019), p. 20–22.
  208. ^ Çakmak (2017), pp. 1425–1429.
  209. ^ Farmer, Edward L., ed. (1995). Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL. p. 82. ISBN 9004103910. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 19 February 2023.
  210. ^ Israeli, Raphael (2002). Islam in China. p. 292. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0375-X.
  211. ^ Dillon, Michael (1999). China's Muslim Hui Community. Curzon. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7007-1026-3.
  212. ^ Bulliet (2005), p. 497
  213. ^ Subtelny, Maria Eva (November 1988). "Socioeconomic Bases of Cultural Patronage under the Later Timurids". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 20 (4): 479–505. doi:10.1017/S0020743800053861. S2CID 162411014. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  214. ^ "Nasir al-Din al-Tusi". University of St Andrews. 1999. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2023.
  215. ^ "Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid Mas'ud al-Kashi". University of St Andrews. 1999. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  216. ^ Drews, Robert (August 2011). "Chapter Thirty – "The Ottoman Empire, Judaism, and Eastern Europe to 1648"" (PDF). Coursebook: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, to the Beginnings of Modern Civilization. Vanderbilt University. Archived from the original on 26 December 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  217. ^ Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p. 321
  218. ^ Gilbert, Marc Jason (2017), South Asia in World History, Oxford University Press, p. 75, ISBN 978-0-19-066137-3, archived from the original on 22 September 2023, retrieved 15 January 2023
  219. ^ Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7 p. 540
  220. ^ Algar, Ayla Esen (1 January 1992). The Dervish Lodge: Architecture, Art, and Sufism in Ottoman Turkey. University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-07060-8. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2020 – via Google Books.
  221. ^ "CONVERSION To Imami Shiʿism in India". Iranica Online. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  222. ^ Tucker, Ernest (1994). "Nadir Shah and the Ja 'fari Madhhab Reconsidered". Iranian Studies. 27 (1–4): 163–179. doi:10.1080/00210869408701825. JSTOR 4310891.
  223. ^ Tucker, Ernest (29 March 2006). "Nāder Shāh". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  224. ^ a b Mary Hawkesworth, Maurice Kogan Encyclopedia of Government and Politics: 2-volume set Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-91332-7 pp. 270–271
  225. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 150.
  226. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 p. 6
  227. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri. SUNY Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-1-4384-5371-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  228. ^ Donald Quataert The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922 Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-521-83910-5 p. 50
  229. ^ a b Ga ́bor A ́goston, Bruce Alan Masters Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire Infobase Publishing 2010 ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7 p. 260
  230. ^ a b c Musa, Shahajada Md (23 August 2022). The Emergence of a Scholar from a Garrison Society: A contextual analysis of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhāb's doctrine in the light of the Qur'ān and Hadīth (masters thesis). University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Archived from the original on 2 May 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  231. ^ "Graves desecrated in Mizdah". Libya Herald. 4 September 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  232. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 146.
  233. ^ Nicolas Laos The Metaphysics of World Order: A Synthesis of Philosophy, Theology, and Politics Wipf and Stock Publishers 2015 ISBN 978-1-4982-0102-5 p. 177
  234. ^ Rubin, Barry M. (2000). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. p. 79. ISBN 0-7656-1747-1. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  235. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 147.
  236. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 149.
  237. ^ Robert L. Canfield (2002). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  238. ^ Sanyal, Usha (23 July 1998). "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the twentieth Century". Modern Asian Studies. 32 (3): 635–656. doi:10.1017/S0026749X98003059. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020 – via Cambridge Core.
  239. ^ Lapidus (2002), pp. 358, 378–380, 624.
  240. ^ Buzpinar, Ş. Tufan (March 2007). "Celal Nuri's Concepts of Westernization and Religion". Middle Eastern Studies. 43 (2): 247–258. doi:10.1080/00263200601114091. JSTOR 4284539. S2CID 144461915.
  241. ^ Lauziere, Henri (2016). The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. New York, Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-0-231-17550-0. Beginning with Louis Massignon in 1919, it is true that Westerners played a leading role in labeling Islamic modernists as Salafis, even though the term was a misnomer. At the time, European and American scholars felt the need for a useful conceptual box to place Muslim figures such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, and their epigones, all of whom seemed inclined toward a scripturalist understanding of Islam but proved open to rationalism and Western modernity. They chose to adopt salafiyya—a technical term of theology, which they mistook for a reformist slogan and wrongly associated with all kinds of modernist Muslim intellectuals.
  242. ^ "Political Islam: A movement in motion". Economist Magazine. 3 January 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  243. ^ Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1957). Islam in Modern History. Princeton University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-691-03030-8.
  244. ^ a b Esposito, John L. (ed.). "Mecelle". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Archived from the original on 17 August 2023. Retrieved 17 August 2023 – via Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  245. ^ "New Turkey". Al-Ahram Weekly. No. 488. 29 June – 5 July 2000. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  246. ^ الوطن, جريدة; webmaster (5 May 2020). "«مملكة الحجاز».. وقــصـــة الـغــزو المـســلّـــح". جريدة الوطن (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 16 May 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  247. ^ Bani Issa, Mohammad Saleh (1 November 2023). "Factors of stability and sustainable development in Jordan in its first centenary 1921–2021 (an analytical descriptive study)". Heliyon. 9 (11): e20993. Bibcode:2023Heliy...920993B. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20993. ISSN 2405-8440. PMC 10623165. PMID 37928029.
  248. ^ a b والخلفاء, قصص الخلافة الإسلامية (31 March 2023). قصص الخلافة الإسلامية والخلفاء. Austin Macauley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-3984-9251-6. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  249. ^ Doran, Michael (1999). Pan-Arabism before Nasser: Egyptian power politics and the Palestine question. Studies in Middle Eastern history. New York Oxford: Oxford university press. ISBN 978-0-19-512361-6.
  250. ^ Landau, Yaʿaqov M. (1994). The politics of Pan-Islam: ideology and organization ([Rev. and updated] paperback (with additions and corr.) ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-827709-5.
  251. ^ "Organization of the Islamic Conference". BBC News. 26 December 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  252. ^ Haddad & Smith (2002), p. 271.
  253. ^ Zabel, Darcy (2006). Arabs in the Americas: Interdisciplinary Essays on the Arab Diaspora. Austria: Peter Lang. p. 5. ISBN 9780820481111.
  254. ^ a b The Future of the Global Muslim Population (Report). Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  255. ^ Bulliet (2005), p. 722
  256. ^ "Are secular forces being squeezed out of Arab Spring?". BBC News. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  257. ^ Slackman, Michael (23 December 2008). "Jordanian students rebel, embracing conservative Islam". New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  258. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (3 December 2011). "Egypt's vote puts emphasis on split over religious rule". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  259. ^ Lauziere, Henri (2016). The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. New York, Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-231-17550-0. Prior to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, leading reformers who happened to be Salafi in creed were surprisingly open-minded: although they adhered to neo-Hanbali theology. However, the aftermath of the First World War and the expansion of European colonialism paved the way for a series of shifts in thought and attitude. The experiences of Rida offer many examples... he turned against the Shi'is who dared, with reason, to express doubts about the Saudi-Wahhabi project... . Shi'is were not the only victims: Rida and his associates showed their readiness to turn against fellow Salafis who questioned some of the Wahhabis' religious interpretations.
  260. ^ G. Rabil, Robert (2014). Salafism in Lebanon: From Apoliticism to Transnational Jihadism. Washington DC, US: Georgetown University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-62616-116-0. Western colonialists established in these countries political orders... that, even though not professing enmity to Islam and its institutions, left no role for Islam in society. This caused a crisis among Muslim reformists, who felt betrayed not only by the West but also by those nationalists, many of whom were brought to power by the West... Nothing reflects this crisis more than the ideological transformation of Rashid Rida (1865–1935)... He also revived the works of Ibn Taymiyah by publishing his writings and promoting his ideas. Subsequently, taking note of the cataclysmic events brought about by Western policies in the Muslim world and shocked by the abolition of the caliphate, he transformed into a Muslim intellectual mostly concerned about protecting Muslim culture, identity, and politics from Western influence. He supported a theory that essentially emphasized the necessity of an Islamic state in which the scholars of Islam would have a leading role... Rida was a forerunner of Islamist thought. He apparently intended to provide a theoretical platform for a modern Islamic state. His ideas were later incorporated into the works of Islamic scholars. Significantly, his ideas influenced none other than Hassan al-Bannah, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt... The Muslim Brethren have taken up Rida's Islamic fundamentalism, a right-wing radical movement founded in 1928,..
  261. ^ "Isis to mint own Islamic dinar coins in gold, silver and copper". The Guardian. 21 November 2014. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  262. ^ "Huge rally for Turkish secularism". BBC News. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  263. ^ Saleh, Heba (15 October 2011). "Tunisia moves against headscarves". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  264. ^ "Laying down the law: Islam's authority deficit". The Economist. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  265. ^ Bowering, Gerhard; Mirza, Mahan; Crone, Patricia (2013). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780691134840.
  266. ^ "Ultraconservative Islam on rise in Mideast". MSNBC. 18 October 2008. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  267. ^ Almukhtar, Sarah; Peçanha, Sergio; Wallace, Tim (5 January 2016). "Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  268. ^ Thames, Knox (6 January 2021). "Why the Persecution of Muslims Should Be on Biden's Agenda". Foreign Policy Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 February 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  269. ^ Perrin, Andrew (10 October 2003). "Weakness in numbers". Time. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  270. ^ Beydoun, Khaled A. "For China, Islam is a 'mental illness' that needs to be 'cured'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  271. ^ Mojzes, Paul (2011). Balkan Genocides: Holocaust and Ethnic Cleansing in the Twentieth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-4422-0663-2.
  272. ^ Oliver Holmes (19 December 2016). "Myanmar's Rohingya campaign 'may be crime against humanity'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  273. ^ "Rohingya abuse may be crimes against humanity: Amnesty". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2016. Archived from the original on 22 September 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  274. ^ "Report of Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar". 27 August 2018. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  275. ^ Slackman, Michael (28 January 2007). "In Egypt, a new battle begins over the veil". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  276. ^ Nigosian (2004), p. 41.
  277. ^ "Islamic televangelist; holy smoke". The Economist. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  278. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 263.
  279. ^ V. Šisler: The Internet and the Construction of Islamic Knowledge in Europe p. 212
  280. ^ Esposito (2004), pp. 118–119, 179.
  281. ^ Rippin (2001), p. 288.
  282. ^ Adams, Charles J. (1983). "Maududi and the Islamic State". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). Voices of Resurgent Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 113–4. [Maududi believed that] when religion is relegated to the personal realm, men inevitably give way to their bestial impulses and perpetrate evil upon one another. In fact it is precisely because they wish to escape the restraints of morality and the divine guidance that men espouse secularism.
  283. ^ Meisami, Sayeh (2013). "'Abdolkarim Soroush". Oxford Bibliographies. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  284. ^ Abdullah Saeed (2017). "Secularism, State Neutrality, and Islam". In Phil Zuckerman; John R. Shook (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Secularism. p. 188. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199988457.013.12. ISBN 978-0-19-998845-7. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2023.(subscription required)
  285. ^ Nader Hashemi (2009). "Secularism". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530513-5. Archived from the original on 6 December 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2023.(subscription required)
  286. ^ "Data taken from various sources, see description in link". Wikimedia Commons. 22 August 2022. Archived from the original on 21 December 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  287. ^ "Muslim Population by Country 2023". Archived from the original on 31 October 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  288. ^ "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2023. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  289. ^ "Muslims and Islam: Key findings in the U.S. and around the world". 9 August 2017. Archived from the original on 8 November 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  290. ^ Lipka, Michael, and Conrad Hackett. [2015] 6 April 2017. "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group Archived 14 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine" (data analysis). Fact Tank. Pew Research Center.
  291. ^ David B. Barrett, George T. Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world, Vol. 1: The world by countries: religionists, churches, ministries 2d ed. (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001), 4.
  292. ^ a b c Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life. April 2015. "The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010–2050 Archived 11 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine." Pew Research Center. p. 70 Article Archived 7 December 2020 at the Wayback Machine.
  293. ^ a b Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life (2009), p. 1. "Of the total Muslim population, 10–13% are Shia Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni Muslims."
  294. ^ Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life (2009), p. 11.
  295. ^ Ba-Yunus, Ilyas; Kone, Kassim (2006). Muslims in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-313-32825-1.
  296. ^ "Muslim Majority Countries 2021". Archived from the original on 1 January 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  297. ^ The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. December 2012. "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010 Archived 23 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine." DC: Pew Research Center. Article Archived 26 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
  298. ^ "Islam in Russia". Al Jazeera. Anadolu News Agency. 7 March 2018. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  299. ^ "Book review: Russia's Muslim Heartlands reveals diverse population", The National, 21 April 2018, archived from the original on 14 January 2019, retrieved 13 January 2019
  300. ^ Pew Forum for Religion and Public Life. April 2015. "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050 Archived 7 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine" (projections table). Pew Research Center.
  301. ^ "Secrets of Islam". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).
  302. ^ Pew Forum for Religion & Public Life (2009), pp. 15, 17.
  303. ^ Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-415-44851-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  304. ^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times Archived 28 December 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
  305. ^ Richard Eaton (8 September 2009). "Forest Clearing and the Growth of Islam in Bengal". In Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.). Islam in South Asia in Practice. Princeton University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-4008-3138-8.
  306. ^ Meghna Guhathakurta; Willem van Schendel (30 April 2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0822353188. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  307. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0..
  308. ^ "Explore All Countries – China". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
  309. ^ "China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)". Archived Content. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  310. ^ "Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC News. 23 December 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  311. ^ Hackett, Conrad (29 November 2017), "5 facts about the Muslim population in Europe", Pew Research Center, archived from the original on 5 January 2019, retrieved 17 January 2023
  312. ^ "Conversion". The Future of the Global Muslim Population (Report). Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2020. there is no substantial net gain or loss in the number of Muslims through conversion globally; the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith
  313. ^ "Cumulative Change Due to Religious Switching, 2010–2050, p.43" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  314. ^ "The Changing Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center. 5 April 2017. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  315. ^ "Fast-growing Islam winning converts in Western world". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  316. ^ "British Muslims Monthly Survey for June 2000, Vol. VIII, No. 6". Women convert. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  317. ^ "Conversion To Islam One Result Of Post-9/11 Curiosity". HuffPost. 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  318. ^ Bindel, Julie (26 April 2010). "Why do Western Women Convert?". Standpoint. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  319. ^ Lipka, Michael; Hackett, Conrad (6 April 2017). "Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  320. ^ "Sunni". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  321. ^ Esposito, John L., ed. (2014). "Sunni Islam". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  322. ^ Denny, Frederick. 2010. Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 3. "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90%) of that community."
  323. ^ Yavuz, Yusuf Şevki (1994). "Ahl as-Sunnah". Islam Ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Vol. 10. Istanbul: Turkish Diyanet Foundation. pp. 525–530. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  324. ^ a b c "sharia". Lexico. Oxford University Pressurl-status=dead. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020.
  325. ^ Esposito (2003), pp. 275, 306
  326. ^ "Sunnism". -Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  327. ^ John Richard Thackrah (2013). Dictionary of Terrorism (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1135165956.
  328. ^ Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation (revised ed.). Brill. p. 11. ISBN 978-9004172739.
  329. ^ George W. Braswell (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0805418293.
  330. ^ An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining sunna, especially the Sunna of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim 'unorthodox' implies heretical, mubtadi, from bid'a, the contrary of sunna and so 'innovation'."
  331. ^ Hadi Enayat Islam and Secularism in Post-Colonial Thought: A Cartography of Asadian Genealogies Springer Publishing, 30 June 2017 ISBN 978-3-319-52611-9 p.48
  332. ^ Rico Isaacs, Alessandro Frigerio Theorizing Central Asian Politics: The State, Ideology and Power Springer Publishing 2018 ISBN 978-3-319-97355-5 p. 108
  333. ^ Esposito (1999), p. 280.
  334. ^ Richard Gauvain Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-0-7103-1356-0 page 8
  335. ^ a b Svante E. Cornell Azerbaijan Since Independence M.E. Sharpe ISBN 9780765630049 p. 283
  336. ^ Robert W. Hefner Shariʻa Politics: Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World Indiana University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-253-22310-4 p. 170
  337. ^ "Field Listing :: Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population." ... "Shia Islam represents 10–15% of Muslims worldwide.
  338. ^ "Sunni". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, comprising about 85% of the world's over 1.5 billion Muslims.
  339. ^ Newman, Andrew J. Shiʿi. Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  340. ^ Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi (2004). "Sunni Islam". In Philip Mattar (ed.). The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference.
  341. ^ Veccia Vaglieri, L. (2012). "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. ISBN 9789004161214. Archived from the original on 14 July 2023. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  342. ^ Campo (2009), pp. 257–258.
  343. ^ Foody, Kathleen (September 2015). Jain, Andrea R. (ed.). "Interiorizing Islam: Religious Experience and State Oversight in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 83 (3). Oxford: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion: 599–623. doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfv029. eISSN 1477-4585. ISSN 0002-7189. JSTOR 24488178. LCCN sc76000837. OCLC 1479270. For Shiʿi Muslims, Muhammad not only designated Ali as his friend, but appointed him as his successor—as the "lord" or "master" of the new Muslim community. Ali and his descendants would become known as the Imams, divinely guided leaders of the Shiʿi communities, sinless, and granted special insight into the Qurʾanic text. The theology of the Imams that developed over the next several centuries made little distinction between the authority of the Imams to politically lead the Muslim community and their spiritual prowess; quite to the contrary, their right to political leadership was grounded in their special spiritual insight. While in theory, the only just ruler of the Muslim community was the Imam, the Imams were politically marginal after the first generation. In practice, Shiʿi Muslims negotiated varied approaches to both interpretative authority over Islamic texts and governance of the community, both during the lifetimes of the Imams themselves and even more so following the disappearance of the twelfth and final Imam in the ninth century.
  344. ^ Foody, Kathleen (September 2015). Jain, Andrea R. (ed.). "Interiorizing Islam: Religious Experience and State Oversight in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 83 (3). Oxford: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Religion: 599–623. doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfv029. eISSN 1477-4585. ISSN 0002-7189. JSTOR 24488178. LCCN sc76000837. OCLC 1479270. For Shiʿi Muslims, Muhammad not only designated Ali as his friend, but appointed him as his successor—as the "lord" or "master" of the new Muslim community. Ali and his descendants would become known as the Imams, divinely guided leaders of the Shiʿi communities, sinless, and granted special insight into the Qurʾanic text. The theology of the Imams that developed over the next several centuries made little distinction between the authority of the Imams to politically lead the Muslim community and their spiritual prowess; quite to the contrary, their right to political leadership was grounded in their special spiritual insight. While in theory, the only just ruler of the Muslim community was the Imam, the Imams were politically marginal after the first generation. In practice, Shiʿi Muslims negotiated varied approaches to both interpretative authority over Islamic texts and governance of the community, both during the lifetimes of the Imams themselves and even more so following the disappearance of the twelfth and final Imam in the ninth century.
  345. ^ Armajani, Jon (2020). Shia Islam and Politics: Iran, Iraq, and Lebanon. Lanham (Md.): Lexington Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-7936-2136-8.
  346. ^ Escobar, Pepe (24 May 2002). "Knocking on heaven's door". Central Asia/Russia. Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 3 June 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2006. our sixth imam, Imam Sadeg, says that we have five definitive holy places... first is Mecca... second is Medina... third belongs to our first imam of Shia, Ali, which is in Najaf. The fourth belongs to our third imam, Hussein, in Kerbala. The last one belongs to the daughter of our seventh imam and sister of our eighth imam, who is called Fatemah, and will be buried in Qom.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  347. ^ Karbala and Najaf: Shia holy cities April, 2003
  348. ^ Escobar, Pepe (24 May 2002). "Knocking on heaven's door". Central Asia/Russia. Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 3 June 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2006. our sixth imam, Imam Sadeg, says that we have five definitive holy places... first is Mecca... second is Medina... third belongs to our first imam of Shia, Ali, which is in Najaf. The fourth belongs to our third imam, Hussein, in Kerbala. The last one belongs to the daughter of our seventh imam and sister of our eighth imam, who is called Fatemah, and will be buried in Qom.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  349. ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). "10". Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Press. p. 67.
  350. ^ al-Qummi, Ja'far ibn Qūlawayh (2008). "Addendum before chapter 89". Kāmil al-Ziyārāt. trans. Sayyid Mohsen al-Husaini al-Mīlāni. Press. p. 545.
  351. ^ Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha. Vol. 2. Retrieved 19 June 2024.
  352. ^ Kohlberg, Etan (1976). "From Imāmiyya to Ithnā-'ashariyya". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 39 (3): 521–534. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00050989. S2CID 155070530. Archived from the original on 14 July 2023. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
  353. ^ Tucker, Spencer C.; Priscilla Mary Roberts, eds. (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 917. ISBN 978-1-85109-842-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  354. ^ Wehrey, Frederic M. (2010). The Iraq Effect: The Middle East After the Iraq War. Rand Corporation. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8330-4788-5. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  355. ^ Peterson, Daniel (2011). "Zaydiyya". Islamic Studies. doi:10.1093/obo/9780195390155-0153.
  356. ^ Newman, Andrew J. (2013). "Introduction". Twelver Shiism: Unity and Diversity in the Life of Islam, 632 to 1722. Edinburgh University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7486-7833-4. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  357. ^ Robert Brenton Betts (31 July 2013). The Sunni-Shi'a Divide: Islam's Internal Divisions and Their Global Consequences. Potomac Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-61234-522-2. Archived from the original on 28 December 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  358. ^ Hoffman, Valerie Jon (2012). The Essentials of Ibadi Islam. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780815650843.
  359. ^ a b Upal, M. Afzal (2021). "The Cultural Genetics of the Aḥmadiyya Muslim Jamāʿat". In Cusack, Carole M.; Upal, M. Afzal (eds.). Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Vol. 21. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. pp. 637–657. doi:10.1163/9789004435544_034. ISBN 978-90-04-43554-4. ISSN 1874-6691.
  360. ^ a b Turner, Richard Brent (2003) [1997]. "The Ahmadiyya Mission to America: A Multi-Racial Model for American Islam". Islam in the African-American Experience (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 109–146. ISBN 9780253216304. LCCN 2003009791.
  361. ^ a b c d e Drover, Lauren (2020). "The Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat: A New Religious Movement Derived from Islam?". In Kim, David W. (ed.). New Religious Movements in Modern Asian History: Socio-Cultural Alternatives. Ethnographies of Religion. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 21–36. ISBN 978-1-7936-3403-0. OCLC 1220880253.
  362. ^ Korbel, Jonathan; Preckel, Claudia (2016). "Ghulām Aḥmad al-Qādiyānī: The Messiah of the Christians—Peace upon Him—in India (India, 1908)". In Bentlage, Björn; Eggert, Marion; Krämer, Hans-Martin; Reichmuth, Stefan (eds.). Religious Dynamics under the Impact of Imperialism and Colonialism. Numen Book Series. Vol. 154. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 426–442. doi:10.1163/9789004329003_034. ISBN 978-90-04-32511-1.
  363. ^ Balzani, Marzia. Ahmadiyya Islam and the Muslim Diaspora: Living at the End of Days. Abingdon, Oxon. pp. 6–8. ISBN 978-1-315-19728-9. OCLC 1137739779.
  364. ^ "What are the Signs of the Second Coming of the Messiah?". Review of Religions. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  365. ^ Paracha, Nadeem F. (21 November 2013). "The 1974 ouster of the 'heretics': What really happened?". DAWN.COM. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  366. ^ Uddin, Asma T. (2014). "A Legal Analysis of Ahmadi Persecution in Pakistan". In Kirkham, David M. (ed.). State Responses to Minority Religions. Ashgate Inform Series on Minority Religions and Spiritual Movements. Farnham, U.K. and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing/Routledge. pp. 81–98. ISBN 978-1-4724-1647-6. LCCN 2013019344 – via Google Books.
  367. ^ "Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1974". Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  368. ^ Algar, Hamid (15 December 1989). "Bektāšīya". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  369. ^ Jorgen S Nielsen Muslim Political Participation in Europe Edinburgh University Press 2013 ISBN 978-0-748-67753-5 page 255
  370. ^ John Shindeldecker: Turkish Alevis Today: II Alevi Population Size and Distribution Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, PDF-Datei, See also Encyclopaedia of the Orient: Alevi Archived 13 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine, consulted on 30 May 2017.
  371. ^ Musa, Aisha Y. (2010). "The Qur'anists". Religion Compass. 4 (1). John Wiley & Sons: 12–21. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x.
  372. ^ Musa, Aisha Y. (2010). "The Qur'anists". Religion Compass. 4 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x. ISSN 1749-8171. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  373. ^ Brown, Daniel W. (4 March 1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–45, 68. ISBN 978-0-521-65394-7.
  374. ^ Juynboll, G. H. A. (1969). The Authenticity of the Tradition Literature: Discussions in Modern Egypt,... G.H.A. Juynboll,... Brill Archive. pp. 23–25.
  375. ^ "Why the name change?" (PDF). Submission Perspective. 57: 1. September 1989. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  376. ^ Benakis, Theodoros (13 January 2014). "Islamophoobia in Europe!". New Europe. Brussels. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2015. Anyone who has travelled to Central Asia knows of the non-denominational Muslims—those who are neither Shiites nor Sounites, but who accept Islam as a religion generally.
  377. ^ Pollack, Kenneth (2014). Unthinkable: Iran, the Bomb, and American Strategy. Simon and Schuster. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4767-3393-7. Although many Iranian hardliners are Shi'a chauvinists, Khomeini's ideology saw the revolution as pan-Islamist, and therefore embracing Sunni, Shi'a, Sufi, and other, more nondenominational Muslims
  378. ^ Burns, Robert (2011). Christianity, Islam, and the West. University Press of America. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7618-5560-6. 40 per cent called themselves "just a Muslim" according to the Council of American-Islamic relations
  379. ^ Tatari, Eren (2014). Muslims in British Local Government: Representing Minority Interests in Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets. BRILL. p. 111. ISBN 978-90-04-27226-2. Nineteen said that they are Sunni Muslims, six said they are just Muslim without specifying a sect, two said they are Ahmadi, and two said their families are Alevi
  380. ^ Lopez, Ralph (2008). Truth in the Age of Bushism. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4348-9615-5. Many Iraqis take offense at reporters' efforts to identify them as Sunni or Shiite. A 2004 Iraq Centre for Research and Strategic Studies poll found the largest category of Iraqis classified themselves as "just Muslim."
  381. ^ a b "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  382. ^ Esposito (2003), p. 302
  383. ^ Malik & Hinnells (2006), p. 3
  384. ^ Turner (1998), p. 145
  385. ^ Trimingham (1998), p. 1
  386. ^ Andani, Khalil. "A Survey of Ismaili Studies Part 1: Early Ismailism and Fatimid Ismailism." Religion Compass 10.8 (2016): 191–206.
  387. ^ Aminrazavi, Mehdi. [2009] 2016. "Mysticism in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by E. N. Zalta. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  388. ^ Knysh, Alexander. 2015. Islam in Historical Perspective. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-34712-5. p. 214.
  389. ^ Haviland, Charles (30 September 2007). "The roar of Rumi – 800 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  390. ^ "Islam: Jalaluddin Rumi". BBC. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  391. ^ a b Chittick (2008), pp. 3–4, 11.
  392. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1993). An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. SUNY Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7914-1515-3. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  393. ^ Peacock (2019), p. 24,77.
  394. ^ Cook, David (May 2015). "Mysticism in Sufi Islam". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.51. ISBN 9780199340378. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  395. ^ "tariqa | Islam". 4 February 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  396. ^ Bowker, John (2000). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. doi:10.1093/acref/9780192800947.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-280094-7.
  397. ^ Sanyal, Usha (1998). "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century". Modern Asian Studies. 32 (3): 635–656. doi:10.1017/S0026749X98003059.
  398. ^ Esposito (2003), "Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaah" – via Oxford Reference.
  399. ^ Alvi, Farhat. "The Significant Role of Sufism in Central Asia" (PDF).
  400. ^ Johns, Anthony H (1995). "Sufism in Southeast Asia: Reflections and Reconsiderations". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 26 (1): 169–183. doi:10.1017/S0022463400010560. JSTOR 20071709. S2CID 154870820.
  401. ^ Babou, Cheikh Anta (2007). "Sufism and Religious Brotherhoods in Senegal". International Journal of African Historical Studies. 40 (1): 184–186.
  402. ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 17, 111–112, 118.
  403. ^ a b c d e Esposito, John L. (ed.). "Islamic Law". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017 – via Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  404. ^ a b c d e f g h Vikør, Knut S. 2014. "Sharīʿah." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, edited by E. Shahin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  405. ^ Esposito, John L.; DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2001). Women in Muslim Family Law. Syracuse University Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-0-8156-2908-5. Quote: "[...], by the ninth century, the classical theory of law fixed the sources of Islamic law at four: the Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet, qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (consensus)."
  406. ^ Leaman (2006), p. 214.
  407. ^ Nigosian (2004), p. 116.
  408. ^ a b Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. 2009. "Law. Modern Legal Reform." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  409. ^ An-Na'im, Abdullahi A. (1996). "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights". In Witte, John; van der Vyver, Johan D. (eds.). Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives. BRILL. pp. 337–359. ISBN 978-90-411-0179-2.
  410. ^ Hajjar, Lisa (2004). "Religion, State Power, and Domestic Violence in Muslim Societies: A Framework for Comparative Analysis". Law & Social Inquiry. 29 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1111/j.1747-4469.2004.tb00329.x. JSTOR 4092696. S2CID 145681085.
  411. ^ Bharathi, K. S. 1998. Encyclopedia of Eminent Thinkers. p. 38.
  412. ^ Weiss (2002), pp. 3, 161.
  413. ^ "Imam". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2023.
  414. ^ Radtke, B.; Lory, P.; Zarcone, Th.; DeWeese, D.; Gaborieau, M.; Denny, F. M.; Aubin, F.; Hunwick, J. O.; Mchugh, N. (2012) [1993]. "Walī". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. J.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1335. ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4.
  415. ^ Iqbal, Zamir, Abbas Mirakhor, Noureddine Krichenne, and Hossein Askari. The Stability of Islamic Finance: Creating a Resilient Financial Environment. p. 75.
  416. ^ Schacht, Joseph. "Riba". In Encyclopaedia of Islam Online (n.d.).
  417. ^ Foster, John (1 December 2009). "How Islamic finance missed heavenly chance". BBC. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  418. ^ Domat, Chloe (20 October 2020). "What Is Islamic Finance And How Does It Work?". Global Finance magazine. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  419. ^ Merchant, Brian (14 November 2013). "Guaranteeing a Minimum Income Has Been a Utopian Dream for Centuries". VICE. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  420. ^ Al-Buraey, Muhammad (1985). Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective. KPI. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-0-7103-0059-1.
  421. ^ Akgündüz, Ahmed; Öztürk, Said (2011). Ottoman History: Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. pp. 539–. ISBN 978-90-90-26108-9. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  422. ^ Al-Jawzi, Ibn (2001). The Biography and Virtues of Omar Bin Abd al-Aziz – The Ascetic Caliph. IUR Press. p. 130.
  423. ^ a b Firestone (1999), pp. 17–18.
  424. ^ a b Afsaruddin, Asma. "Jihad". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  425. ^ Brockopp (2003), pp. 99–100
  426. ^ Esposito (2003), p. 93
  427. ^ a b Firestone (1999), p. 17.
  428. ^ a b c Tyan, E. "D̲j̲ihād". In Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) (2012).. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0189
  429. ^ Habeck, Mary R. Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror. Yale University Press. pp. 108–109, 118.
  430. ^ Sachedina (1998), pp. 105–106.
  431. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 72.
  432. ^ Fahd Salem Bahammam. Food and Dress in Islam: An explanation of matters relating to food and drink and dress in Islam. Modern Guide. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-909322-99-8.
  433. ^ Curtis (2005), p. 164
  434. ^ Esposito (2002b), p. 111
  435. ^ Francesca, Ersilia. "Slaughter". In McAuliffe (n.d.).
  436. ^ De Sondy, Amanullah (28 January 2016). "The relationship between Muslim men and their beards is a tangled one". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  437. ^ Legge, James (1880). The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity. London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 111. Retrieved 28 June 2010. mohammedan.(Original from Harvard University)
  438. ^ "Are Muslims Allowed to Get Tattoos?". Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  439. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 158.
  440. ^ Zine, Jasmin; Babana-Hampton, Safoi; Mazid, Nergis; Bullock, Katherine; Chishti, Maliha. American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 19:4. International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). p. 59. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  441. ^ Esposito, John. "Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
  442. ^ Waines (2003), pp. 93–96
  443. ^ Esposito (2003), p. 339
  444. ^ Esposito (1998), p. 79
  445. ^ Newby, Gordon D. (2002). A concise encyclopedia of Islam. Oxford: Oneworld. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-85168-295-9.
  446. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2001). Islam : religion, history, and civilization. New York: HarperOne. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-06-050714-5.
  447. ^ Ratno Lukito. Legal Pluralism in Indonesia: Bridging the Unbridgeable. Routledge. p. 81.
  448. ^ "IslamWeb". IslamWeb. 7 February 2002. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  449. ^ Eaton, Gai (2000). Remembering God: Reflections on Islam. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-946621-84-2.
  450. ^ "Why Can't a Woman have 2 Husbands?". 14 Publications. Archived from the original on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  451. ^ Campo (2009), p. 106.
  452. ^ a b Nigosian (2004), p. 120.
  453. ^ "Khitān". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2014. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  454. ^ Anwer, Abdul Wahid; Samad, Lubna; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Iftikhar, Sundus (January 2017). "Reported Male Circumcision Practices in a Muslim-Majority Setting". BioMed Research International. 2017. Hindawi Publishing Corporation: 1–8. doi:10.1155/2017/4957348. PMC 5282422. PMID 28194416.
  455. ^ "Islam: Circumcision of boys". Religion & ethics—Islam. 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  456. ^ Campo (2009), p. 136.
  457. ^ Mathijssen, Brenda; Venhorst, Claudia; Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas (2013). Changing European Death Ways. Austria: Lit. p. 265. ISBN 9783643900678.
  458. ^ Stefon (2010), p. 83.
  459. ^ Rahman, Rema (25 October 2011). "Who, What, Why: What are the burial customs in Islam?". BBC. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  460. ^ Melikian, Souren (4 November 2011). "'Islamic' Culture: A Groundless Myth". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  461. ^ Esposito (2010), p. 56.
  462. ^ Lawrence, Bruce (2021). Islamicate Cosmopolitan Spirit. United Kingdom: Wiley. p. xii. ISBN 9781405155144.
  463. ^ Ettinghausen, Richard; Grabar, Oleg; Jenkins-Madina, Marilyn (2003). Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250 (2nd ed.). Yale University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-300-08869-8.
  464. ^ Suarez, Michael F. (2010). "38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World". The Oxford companion to the book. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 331ff. ISBN 9780198606536. OCLC 50238944.
  465. ^ Salim Ayduz; Ibrahim Kalin; Caner Dagli (2014). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-19-981257-8. Figural representation is virtually unused in Islamic art because of Islam's strong antagonism of idolatry. It was important for Muslim scholars and artists to find a style of art that represented the Islamic ideals of unity (tawhid) and order without figural representation. Geometric patterns perfectly suited this goal.
  466. ^ T. W. Arnold (June 1919). "An Indian Picture of Muhammad and His Companions". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 34 (195). The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 34, No. 195.: 249–252. JSTOR 860736.
  467. ^ Isichei, Elizabeth Allo (1997). A history of African societies to 1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-45599-2. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
  468. ^ Tjahjono, Gunawan (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 981-3018-30-5.
  469. ^ "Islamic calendar". Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  470. ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Islamic World: Past and Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9780195165203.
  471. ^ Aitchison, Cara; Hopkins, Peter E.; Mei-Po Kwan (2007). Geographies of Muslim Identities: Diaspora, Gender and Belonging. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4094-8747-0. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  472. ^ Rassool, G. Hussein (2015). Islamic Counselling: An Introduction to theory and practice. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 9781317441250. The label 'Cultural Muslim' is used in the literature to describe those Muslims who are religiously unobservant, secular or irreligious individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background, personal experiences, or the social and cultural environment in which they grew up... For Cultural Muslim the declaration of faith is superficial and has no effect of their religious practices.
  473. ^ De McLaurin, Ronald (1979). The Political Role of Minority Groups in the Middle East. Michigan University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-03-052596-4. Theologically, one would have to conclude that the Druze are not Muslims. They do not accept the five pillars of Islam. In place of these principles, the Druze have instituted the seven precepts noted above...
  474. ^ Hunter, Shireen (2010). The Politics of Islamic Revivalism: Diversity and Unity: Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C.), Georgetown University. Center for Strategic and International Studies. University of Michigan Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-253-34549-3. Druze – An offshoot of Shi'ism; its members are not considered Muslims by orthodox Muslims.
  475. ^ R. Williams, Victoria (2020). Indigenous Peoples: An Encyclopedia of Culture, History, and Threats to Survival [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 318. ISBN 978-1-4408-6118-5. As Druze is a nonritualistic religion without requirements to pray, fast, make pilgrimages, or observe days of rest, the Druze are not considered an Islamic people by Sunni Muslims.
  476. ^ D. Grafton, David (2009). Piety, Politics, and Power: Lutherans Encountering Islam in the Middle East. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-63087-718-7. In addition, there are several quasi-Muslim sects, in that, although they follow many of the beliefs and practices of orthodox Islam, the majority of Sunnis consider them heretical. These would be the Ahmadiyya, Druze, Ibadi, and the Yazidis.
  477. ^ Poonawala, Ismail K. (July–September 1999). "Review: The Fatimids and Their Traditions of Learning by Heinz Halm". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 119 (3). American Oriental Society: 542. doi:10.2307/605981. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 605981. LCCN 12032032. OCLC 47785421.
  478. ^ Bryer, David R. W. (1975). "The Origins of the Druze Religion (Fortsetzung)". Der Islam. 52 (2): 239–262. doi:10.1515/islm.1975.52.2.239. ISSN 1613-0928. S2CID 162363556.
  479. ^ Foltz, Richard (7 November 2013). "Two Kurdish Sects: The Yezidis and the Yaresan". Religions of Iran: From Prehistory to the Present. Oneworld Publications. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-78074-307-3.
  480. ^ House of Justice, Universal. "One Common Faith". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  481. ^ Elsberg, Constance (2003), Graceful Women. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 978-1-57233-214-0. pp. 27–28.
  482. ^ "St. John of Damascus's Critique of Islam". Writings by St John of Damascus. The Fathers of the Church. Vol. 37. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press. 1958. pp. 153–160. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  483. ^ Fahlbusch et al (2001), p. 759.
  484. ^ Christian Lange Paradise and Hell in Islamic Traditions Cambridge University Press, 2015 ISBN 978-0-521-50637-3 pp. 18–20
  485. ^ Reeves, Minou, and P. J. Stewart. 2003. Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-7564-6. p. 93–96.
  486. ^ a b Stone, G. 2006. Dante's Pluralism and the Islamic Philosophy of Religion. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4039-8309-1. p. 53-54.
  487. ^ Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. p. 18, 35. ISBN 978-0-521-02699-4.
  488. ^ Modood, Tariq (6 April 2006). Multiculturalism, Muslims and Citizenship: A European Approach (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-415-35515-5.


Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Further reading