List of artificial objects on Mars

The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Although most are defunct after having served their purpose, the Curiosity and Perseverance rovers are active. China's Tianwen-1 spacecraft is the most recent artificial object to land safely on Mars.

The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. As of February 2021, there are 14 missions with objects on the surface of Mars. Some of these missions contain multiple spacecraft.

Map of Mars
Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlaid with the position of Martian rovers and landers. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations of Martian surface.
Clickable image: Clicking on the labels will open a new article.
(   Active  Inactive  Planned)
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Mars Polar Lander
Schiaparelli EDM
Viking 1

List of landers and vehicles

Year Agency Mission Object(s) Image Mass
Status Location
1971 USSR Mars 2 Mars 2 lander and PrOP-M rover   1210 Failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated at 45°S 313°W / 45°S 313°W / -45; -313 (Mars 2)[1]
1971 USSR Mars 3 Mars 3 lander and PrOP-M rover   1210 Transmission failure 110 seconds after soft landing Estimated at Sirenum Terra

45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 (Mars 3)[2]

1973 USSR Mars 6 Mars 6 lander   635 Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface[3] Estimated at Margaritifer Terra

23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 (Mars 6)[3]

1976 NASA Viking 1 Viking 1 lander   657 Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982 Chryse Planitia

22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 (Viking 1)[4]

1976 NASA Viking 2 Viking 2 lander   657 Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980 Utopia Planitia

48°16′08″N 225°59′24″W / 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269; -225.990 (Viking 2)[5]

1997 NASA Mars Pathfinder Pathfinder (lander)   360 Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997[6] Ares Vallis

19°20′N 33°33′W / 19.33°N 33.55°W / 19.33; -33.55 (Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner)[7][8]

Sojourner (rover) 11.5
1999 NASA Mars Surveyor '98 Mars Polar Lander and

Deep Space 2 (probes)

  500 Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated at Ultimi Scopuli

76°S 195°W / 76°S 195°W / -76; -195 (Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2)

2003 ESA


Mars Express Beagle 2 (lander)   33.2 Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy Isidis Planitia

11°31′35″N 90°25′46″E / 11.5265°N 90.4295°E / 11.5265; 90.4295 (Beagle 2 landing site)

2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (rover)   185 Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010 Gusev crater

14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 (Spirit rover)

Opportunity (rover)   185 Operated 5111 sols. Last contact June 10, 2018 Meridiani Planum

1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover)

2008 NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Phoenix (lander)   350 Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008 Green Valley in Vastitas Borealis

68°13′N 125°42′W / 68.22°N 125.7°W / 68.22; -125.7 (Phoenix)

2012 NASA Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity (rover)   900 In operation, 4249 sols Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater

4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417

2016 ESA


ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli EDM (lander)   577 Crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry Meridiani Planum

2°03′S 6°13′W / 2.05°S 6.21°W / -2.05; -6.21 (Schiaparelli EDM lander crash site)

2018 NASA InSight InSight (lander)   358 Reached end of designed lifespan after landing on 19 Dec, 2022. Elysium Planitia

4°30′09″N 135°37′24″E / 4.5024°N 135.6234°E / 4.5024; 135.6234 (InSight landing site)

2021 NASA Mars 2020 Perseverance (rover)   1024 In operation, 1215 sols Jezero crater

18°26′45″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4457°N 77.4508°E / 18.4457; 77.4508 (Perseverance landing site)

Ingenuity (helicopter)   1.8 Operated 1215 sols.[9] Wright Brothers Field

18°26′45″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4457°N 77.4508°E / 18.4457; 77.4508 (Ingenuity drop site)

2021 CNSA Tianwen-1 Tianwen-1 (lander)   1285
[citation needed]
Reached end of designed lifespan after landing on 14 May, 2021. Utopia Planitia

25°06′N 109°54′E / 25.1°N 109.9°E / 25.1; 109.9 (Zhurong landing site)

Zhurong (rover) 240 Inactive due to sandstorm. Operated for 361 sols.[10]
Tianwen-1 Remote camera <1 Reached end of designed lifespan after mission completion on 1 June, 2021.

Other objects

An example of an additional object from a spacecraft landing is the metal shroud ejected by the Viking 2 lander, as seen in this 1977 view of Mars. The shroud covered the surface sampler instrument and could be seen in images taken by the lander while it was active on the surface.[11]
  • Each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what had happened.[12] Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.
  • Orbiters whose orbit could eventually decay and impact the surface, include: Viking 1 and Viking 2 orbiters, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, 2001 Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Global Surveyor, Phobos 2, Mars 2, Mars 3, and Mars 5 orbiters, and Mariner 9. (See also List of Mars orbiters)
  • The fate of Mars Climate Orbiter (1999) is unknown, but it is thought to have burnt up in the atmosphere before impacting.
  • Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971, is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface.[13]

From surface


From orbit


Landing site namings and memorials


Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site:

 Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe Terra
  Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars Memorial sites. Hover over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(   Named  Debris  Lost )

Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlaid with the position of Martian rovers and landers. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations of Martian surface.
  Clickable image: Clicking on the labels will open a new article.
(   Active  Inactive  Planned)

See also



  1. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 2". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  2. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 3". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  3. ^ a b "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 6". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 1 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  5. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 2 lander". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  6. ^ "Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2011-12-07.
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder Rover". Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  9. ^ "After Three Years on Mars, NASA's Ingenuity Helicopter Mission Ends". Archived from the original on 26 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.
  10. ^ Cheung, Rachel (13 March 2023). "China's Mars Rover Has Not Moved Since September, NASA Images Revealed". Vice News.
  11. ^ Mars - Viking 2 Lander
  12. ^ "Beagle 2 spacecraft found intact on surface of Mars after 11 years". The Guardian. 2015-01-17. Archived from the original on 2023-04-14.
  13. ^ NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9
  14. ^ Soviet Craft - Mars (1960–1974) Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ NSSDC - Viking 1 lander
  16. ^ NSSDC - Viking 2 lander
  17. ^ NSSDC - Mars Pathfinder
  18. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorialized on Mars
  19. ^ NASA - Space Shuttle Columbia Crew Memorialized on Mars
  20. ^ "Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury". NASA. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012.