CMA CGM is a French shipping and logistics company founded in 1978 by Jacques Saadé.[7]

Company typeSociété Anonyme, Private
IndustryFreight transport
PredecessorCompagnie Générale Transatlantique and Messageries Maritimes
Founded13 September 1978; 45 years ago (1978-09-13)[1]
FounderJacques R. Saadé
Area served
Key people
Rodolphe Saadé (Executive Chairman and CEO)
Tanya Saadé Zeenny (Director and Executive Officer)
ProductsContainer shipping and terminals, logistics and freight forwarding, ferry and tanker transport
RevenueIncrease $74.50 billion (2022)[2]
Increase $33.31 billion (2022)[2]
Increase $24.88 billion (2022)[2]
Total assetsIncrease $51.98 billion (2021)[3]
Total equityIncrease $23.91 billion (2021)[3]
Number of employees
SubsidiariesList of subsidiaries
Footnotes / references

The name is an acronym of two predecessor companies, Compagnie Maritime d'Affrètement (CMA) and Compagnie Générale Maritime (CGM), translating as "Maritime Freighting Company" and "General Maritime Company", respectively.

The company is headquartered at the CMA CGM Tower in Marseille, France,[8] and is the third largest container shipping company in the world.[9] The company's 2023 annual revenue was US$47 billion.[4]

CMA CGM business activities include shipping, port operation, supply chain management and warehousing, with a presence in 160 countries through 400 offices, 750 warehouses, 155,000 employees and a wide fleet of 593 vessels. CMA CGM serves 420 of the world’s 521 commercial ports and operates 257 shipping lines.[4]

History edit

Container ship CMA CGM Opal berthed at North Quay in the inner harbour of Fremantle, Australia.

The history of CMA CGM can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century, when two major French shipping lines were created, respectively Messageries Maritimes (MM) in 1851 and Compagnie Générale Maritime (CGM) in 1855, soon renamed Compagnie Générale Transatlantique in 1861. Both companies were created partly with the backing of the French State, through the award of mail contracts to various destinations, French colonies and overseas territories as well as foreign countries. After the two World Wars, the two companies became "State owned corporations of the competitive sector" (Entreprise publique du secteur concurrentiel), i.e., companies that, while owned by the State, were run as private for-profit businesses operating in competitive markets. The French government, under President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, progressively merged the two companies between 1974 and 1977 to form Compagnie Générale Maritime, which was still owned by the French government and still run as a competitive business, although sometimes subject to political pressure, for instance on the selection of shipyards to build new ships.

Compagnie Générale Maritime (CGM) operated as such from 1974 to 1996 when it was privatized by the French state under President Chirac and Prime Minister Alain Juppé. During these 22 years it operated freight and container liner services in various global trade lanes, as well as a fleet of dry bulk ships, and a few large oil tankers and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers, with headquarters located in Paris' western suburbs, first in Paris-La Defense, then in close by Suresnes.

The CGM liner services, mostly containerized but also operating a significant fleet of "Con-Ro" vessels able to load roll-on/roll-off cargoes, were re-structured from the two parent companies' main trade lanes, i.e. Western trade lanes (Americas) for Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT) and Eastern trade lanes (Asia, East Africa, Pacific, plus Eastern South America) for Messageries Maritimes (MM). After the merger and re-structure, CGM's liner services were managed in four distinct Trade Divisions, North America & Far East (AMNEO, for Amérique du Nord & Extrême Orient) which also managed the bulk and tanker fleets, South America & Caribbean (AMLAT), Pacific & Indian Ocean (PACOI) and Short Sea Trades (Cabotage).

Separately, Jacques Saadé had created CMA in 1978 as an intra-Mediterranean liner service operator, based in Marseille. In 1996, CGM was privatized and sold to Compagnie Maritime d'Affrètement (CMA) to form CMA CGM.[10]

In 1998 the combined company purchased Australian National Lines (ANL).

Container ship CMA CGM Balzac in the port of Zeebrugge, Belgium

In September 2005, CMA CGM acquired its French rival Delmas based in Le Havre from the Bolloré Group for €600 million. The acquisition was completed in early January 5, 2006. The resulting corporation became the third largest container company in the world behind the Danish A.P. Moller-Maersk Group and the Swiss Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A.[11]

In May 2007, a consortium represented by CMA CGM completed its acquisition of Compagnie Marocaine de Navigation (Comanav) for a sum of €200 million.[12][13]

In July 2007, CMA CGM acquired Cheng Lie Navigation Corp. (CNC Line), Intra-Asia container line based in Taiwan.

In 2014, CMA CGM signs the Ocean Three agreements. The group strengthens its offer by signing major agreements on the biggest worldwide maritime trades with CSCL and UASC.

In April 2015, the group acquired a strategic stake in LCL Logistix, a logistics leader in India, via its subsidiary CMA CGM LOG.

In December 2015, CMA CGM Benjamin Franklin called at the Port of Los Angeles and thus became the largest vessel ever to call the United States.[14] The container-ship, 1,300 ft (400 m) long and 177 ft (54 m) wide, was inaugurated in Port of Long Beach on February 19.[15]

In July 2016 CMA CGM finalized its acquisition of Singapore-based NOL (Neptune Orient Lines) and its container line APL (American President Lines) after an all-cash offer of US$2.4 billion. The takeover is CMA CGM's largest acquisition and the purchase added 12 percent market share to the CMA CGM group. The Singapore Exchange Securities Trading suspended trading of NOL shares at the end of the offer.[16][17]

In June 2017, CMA CGM acquire Mercosul Line, a Brazilian shipping company specialized in multimodal door-to-door container transportation and logistics.[18]

In October 2018, CMA CGM finalized the acquisition of Finland-based container-transportation and logistics company Containerships.[19]

In April 2019, CMA CGM completed its public tender offer to acquire CEVA Logistics.[20][21] With this acquisition, the CMA CGM Group becomes a global leader in transport and logistics, 110,000 people strong with more than $30.3 billion in revenue. CEVA operational center is transferred in Marseille, France, where is located the Head Office of the CMA CGM Group.[22]

In February 2021, CMA CGM Group completes its logistics offer by creating a new division dedicated to air freight: CMA CGM Air Cargo. With its four Airbus A330-200F cargo aircraft, this airfreight division links Europe to North America.[23] The first flight from Liège to Chicago marks the debut of commercial operations.[24]

In September 2021, CMA CGM announced a partnership with fellow Breton-based operator Brittany Ferries. The partnership involves a €25 million investment, plus a CMA CGM representative joining Brittany Ferries' supervisory board.[25][26][27]

In May 2022, CMA CGM signed a strategic partnership with Air France–KLM to develop their air cargo capacities together. However, this partnership, implemented in April 2023,[28] was terminated by mutual agreement in January 2024 without change in the 9% stake acquired by CMA CGM in the Franco-Dutch airline group.[29][30]

In January 2024, a takeover offer for Wincanton plc was made.[31][32]

Ownership edit

CMA CGM is 73% owned by Rodolphe Saadé and his family through Merit France SAS. The Turkish family-owned company Yildirim Holding has a 24% stake and French public sector investment bank BPIfrance has a 3% holding.[33] [34] [35]

Subsidiaries edit

Maritime activities

  • Australian National Line (ANL) (specializes in Australia, New Zealand, Oceania and Asia container transportation)
  • Compagnie Marocaine de Navigation (Comanav) (passenger ferry and container services from Morocco to Europe)
  • Cheng Lie Navigation Corp. (CNC Line) (specializes in Intra-Asia container transportation)
  • Mercosul Line (specializes on the East Coast of South America container transportation)
  • Containerships (specializes in Intra-European container transportation)
  • American President Lines (APL) (Singapore-based container line)

Terminal activities

  • Terminal Link - container terminals developer and operator, ranked N°12 worldwide
  • CMA Terminals Holding

Intermodal activities and logistics

  • Progeco (container: sales, leasing & repairing)
  • CMA CGM Logistics
  • Rail Link (multimodal rail transport)
  • River Shuttle Containers (Rhône – Saône axis containerised river transportation)

Support activities

  • CMA Ships (a wholly-owned subsidiary managing all fleet-related operations)

Air services

Joint ventures edit

  • CMA Systems, a business entity in partnership with IBM involving development of new technologies like the cloud computing.

Fleet edit

CMA CGM shipping container

In 2023, CMA CGM's fleet included:

  • 593 vessels
  • 4,500,000 container TEUs
  • 600,000 reefer container TEUs

The fleet has 200 maritime services and calls at more than 420 ports in 160 countries. There are 521 commercial ports in the world at the moment.

Container ship classes of CMA CGM
Ship class Built Capacity (TEU) Ships in class Notes
CMA CGM Vela-class 2008–2009 11,262 4
CMA CGM Andromeda-class 2009–2011 11,388 12
CMA CGM Explorer-class 2009–2015 13,830–17,859 14
CMA CGM A. Lincoln-class 2017–2018 14,414 6
CMA CGM Antoine de Saint Exupery-class 2018 20,954 3
CMA CGM Argentina-class 2019–onwards 14,812–15,052 11+ Long-term charter from Eastern Pacific Shipping
CMA CGM Jacques Saadé-class 2020–2021 23,112 9 LNG-powered container ships[36]
CMA CGM Patagonia-class 2021–2022 15,000 5
CMA CGM Zephyr-class 2021–2022 15,000 5
2023–onwards 5,500 10 VLSFO-powered container ships[37]
CMA CGM Bahia-class 2023–onwards 13,000 6 LNG-powered container ships[37]
2023–onwards 15,000 6 LNG-powered container ships[37]
2025–onwards 8,000 6 To be built at Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries[38]
2025–onwards 7,900 3 Biogas-powered container ships[39]
2025–onwards 7,300 4 Biogas-powered container ships[39]
2025–2026 24,000 10 LNG dual-fueled container ships[40][41]

Some emblematic group's vessels are:

Air fleet edit

Accidents and incidents edit

On April 4, 2008, pirates seized the CMA CGM luxury cruise ship Le Ponant off the coast of Somalia.

CMA CGM and its affiliates have been implicated in various arms-shipping incidents.

  • November 2009: South Africa seized arms traveling from North Korea by way of China. The seizure amounted to two containers filled with tank parts and other military equipment from North Korea, which included "gun sights, tracks and other spare parts for T-54 and T-55 tanks and other war material valued at an estimated $750,000." The military equipment was concealed in containers lined with sacks of rice and shipping documents identified the cargo as spare parts for a "bulldozer". According to the report, the containers were originally loaded in Dalian, China onto CMA CGM Musca, a UK-flagged container ship. The shipment was reportedly destined for Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo.[42][43]
  • July 2009: The United Arab Emirates seized a shipment of weapons from North Korea destined for Iran. The shipment was made in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1874, which bans all North Korean Arms exports. The weapons, which included RPGs, detonators, ammunition, and rocket propellant, were shipped by a Bahamian-flagged vessel of ANL Australia, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMA CGM.[44][45]
  • October 2010: Nigerian authorities seized 13 shipping containers carrying illegal Iranian weaponry at Lagos' Apapa Port. The containers included 107 mm artillery rockets (Katyushas), explosives and rifle ammunition. The arms were to be shipped next to The Gambia, with the final destination of the cargo possibly the Gaza Strip. MV CMA CGM Everest originally picked up the containers from the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas. CMA CGM said it was the victim of a false cargo declaration, claiming the weapons were shipped in packages labeled as "glass wool and pallets of stone" and that the Iranian shipper "does not appear on any forbidden persons listing".[46]
  • March 2011: Israeli forces intercepted the vessel Victoria in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea, stating that it was carrying weapons by Iran via Syria. According to Israeli officials, the arms shipments included "roughly 2,500 mortar shells, nearly 75,000 bullets and six C-704 anti-ship missiles". Israel said the ultimate destination of the cargo was for the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip.[47] CMA CGM, which chartered the vessel, stated, "The ship's manifests do not show any cargo in contravention [of] international regulations, and we do not have any more information at this stage."[48]

As a result of CMA CGM's involvement in Iranian weapons smuggling, US congressmen have called on CMA CGM to be investigated and urged the US Treasury Department to consider levying sanctions against the shipper.[49] The company has since implemented tighter procedures for accepting shipments bound for Iran,[50] including scanning all containers destined for the country.[51] CMA CGM has also ceased exporting from Iranian ports since November 2011.[51]

CMA CGM Centaurus edit

On 4 May 2017, the container ship CMA CGM Centaurus made heavy contact with the quay and two shore cranes while under pilotage during its arrival at Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates. The accident resulted in the collapse of a shore crane and 10 injuries to shore personnel.[52]

CMA CGM Washington edit

On 20 January 2018, the container ship CMA CGM Washington was on-route to Los Angeles, US, from Xiamen, China, when it experienced heavy waves in the North Pacific Ocean. The crew discovered that three bays, 54, 58 and 18, collapsed, which led to the loss of 137 containers and damage of another 85.

CMA CGM Norma edit

On 24 December 2018, the container ship CMA CGM Norma was involved in a collision with the China-flagged general cargo ship Yusheng366 in the waters south of Hong Kong. All the crew from Yusheng366 were rescued as they abandoned ship before she sank, while CMA CGM Norma suffered minor damages.[53]

CMA CGM Rabelais edit

On 6 April 2022, a fire broke out in a container on the ship's deck on the 6,552 TEU CMA CGM Rabelais. The vessel was en route to Nhava Sheva, India, after departing Singapore and was navigating the Malacca Straits, some 100km north-west of Port Klang, when the fire was discovered at about noon, local time.[54] A spokesperson for vessel owner Danaos Corporation, said the master had “immediately implemented firefighting protocols” and emphasised that "the fire is still burning, but it is under control.” One crew member was injured during the firefighting operations, when he slipped and fell, breaking some ribs.[55]

APL Vanda edit

On 3 July 2022, the Singaporean-flagged container ship APL Vanda was on-route between Singapore and Suez as part of CMA CGM's Asia - North-Europe Fal 3 service, when it lost 55 loaded containers in the Indian Ocean whilst the vessel was facing heavy weather, just before entry to the Gulf of Aden according to CMA CGM.[56] No injury was reported and all crew members were safe. The ship, which left Singapore on June 26, stopped on July 9 in Djibouti "to clear some damaged containers on deck before safely continuing its voyage."[57]

CMA CGM Symi edit

On 25 November 2023, US defense officials reported that the ship was targeted in a suspected Iranian drone attack while in the Indian Ocean, en route from Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates to Port Klang, Malaysia.[58] The ship has an Israeli owner and the incident happened a short time before the 2023 Israel-Hamas ceasefire.[59][60]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "September 13, 1978 – September 13, 2022: 44 years of passion!". CMA CGM. 7 June 2023.
  2. ^ a b c "2022 annual financial results: Exceptional annual performance, despite a marked slowdown in business since the fourth quarter". CMA CGM. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Consolidated Financial Statements. Year ended December 31, 2021" (PDF). CMA CGM. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b c "BETTER WAYS, making supply chains more sustainable every day". CMA CGM. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  5. ^ "About Us". CMA CGM.
  6. ^ "Consolidated Financial Statements" (PDF). CMA CGM.
  7. ^ Nouvelle, L'Usine (9 February 2017). "Rodolphe Saadé, nouveau directeur général de CMA CGM - L'Usine Aéro".
  8. ^ "CMA CGM Headquarters". Zaha Hadid Architects. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  9. ^ "Alphaliner TOP 100". Alphaliner. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  10. ^ Renaud Lecade (2005-07-19). "Touché-coulé chez les frères Saadé" (in French). Libération. Archived from the original (reprint) on 2006-02-08.
  11. ^ CMA CGM completes the acquisition of Delmas[permanent dead link], Jan. 10, 2006, CMA CGM press release.
  12. ^ "CMA CGM consortium to buy Morocco's Comanav". FreightWaves. 2007-03-25. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  13. ^ "CMA CGM completes takeover of Morocco's Comanav". FreightWaves. 2007-05-27. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  14. ^ "The CMA CGM BENJAMIN FRANKLIN has arrived at the Port of L.A." Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  15. ^ "The CMA CGM BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, the largest vessel ever to call the United States, will be inaugurated in Long Beach today". Retrieved 2016-02-23.
  16. ^ "NOL to be delisted after France's CMA CGM crosses 90% ownership threshold".[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "CMA CGM closes on NOL takeover offer". 18 July 2016.
  18. ^ Louppova, Julia (2017-06-14). "CMA CGM acquires Mercosul from Maersk Line". Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  19. ^ "CMA CGM Wraps Up Acquisition of Containerships". Offshore Energy. 2018-10-31. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  20. ^ Paris, Costas (2019-02-12). "CMA CGM Pursues $1.65 Billion Deal for Ceva Logistics". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  21. ^ Miller, John (2019-01-28). "France's CMA CGM launches offer to buy rest of CEVA Logistics shares". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  22. ^ en, CMA CGM (November 14, 2019). "French Prime Minister Edouard Philippe inaugurates CEVA Logistics' new headquarters in Marseille".
  23. ^ "CMA CGM officially launches air cargo division with four A330-200Fs". The Loadstar. 2021-02-12. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  24. ^ "Air cargo: CMA CGM Air Cargo takes off on Europe-US trade lane". Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  25. ^ "Brittany Ferries and CMA CGM form a partnership in passenger and freight transport. – Brittany Ferries".
  26. ^ "Brittany Ferries and CMA CGM to enter commercial partnership". 14 September 2021.
  27. ^ "CMA CGM | Brittany Ferries and CMA CGM form a partnership in passenger and freight transport".
  28. ^ The Stat Times, April 3, 2023 Air France-KLM, CMA CGM launch air cargo partnership
  29. ^ The Load Star CMA CGM losses were said to be at heart of 'divorce' from AF-KLM
  30. ^ Air France-KLM capital shareholding structure as of December 2022
  31. ^ CEVA Logistics of CMA CGM, reached an agreement with the board of directors of Wincanton American Journal of Transporattion 19 January 2024
  32. ^ UK-based Wincanton accepts $718 million takeover offer from CEVA Logistics Journal of Commerce 19 January 2024
  33. ^ "Robert Yildirim to retain 24% CMA CGM shareholding". Lloyd's List. November 14, 2017.
  34. ^ "CMA CGM's unstoppable rise in transport and logistics". May 8, 2023 – via Le Monde.
  35. ^
  36. ^ "CMA CGM Welcomes Ninth 23,000 TEU LNG-Powered Vessel 'SORBONNE'". Marine Insight. 2021-06-30. Retrieved 2021-07-05.
  37. ^ a b c "CMA CGM Orders 22 New Boxships from China Shipbuilding". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  38. ^ "CMA CGM confirms orders for six 8,000 TEU ships at Hyundai Samho". Container News. 2022-06-08. Retrieved 2022-06-11.
  39. ^ a b "CMA CGM orders seven new biogas-powered vessels to serve French West Indies". Container News. 2022-09-22. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
  40. ^ Mandra, Jasmina Ovcina (30 June 2023). "Container shipping majors score big as Evergreen, CMA CGM, and Maersk add over 40 orders to the yards". Offshore Energy.
  41. ^ Li, Martina (29 June 2023). "CMA CGM finalises 10-ship haul at Yangzijiang". The Loadstar.
  42. ^ Jor Lauria, Gordon Fairclough and Peter Wonacott (26 February 2010). "Pretoria Seized North Korean Weapons". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  43. ^ Edith Lederer (25 February 2010). "South Africa reports NKorea sanctions violation". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  44. ^ Peter Spiegel and Chip Cummins (31 August 2009). "Cargo of North Korea Matériel Is Seized en Route to Iran". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  45. ^ Joby Warrick (3 December 2009). "Arms smuggling heightens Iran fears". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  46. ^ Jon Gambrell (30 October 2010). "Nigeria: Shipper confirms weapons came from Iran". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  47. ^ "Israel unveils seized arms cache from cargo ship". Boston Herald. Associated Press. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  48. ^ Bruce Barnard (15 March 2011). "Israeli Commandos Seize CMA CGM Ship in Arms Probe". The Journal of Commerce. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
  49. ^ Benjamin Weinthal and Johannes C. Bockenheimer (30 May 2011). "French ship company faces US sanctions for 'Iran ties'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  50. ^ "Regulations and procedures for shipments to Iran" (PDF). CMA CGM. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  51. ^ a b "Iranian arms smugglers using European ship firms-study". Reuters. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  52. ^ "Heavy contact made by container vessel CMA CGM Centaurus with quay and shore cranes". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  53. ^ "Cargo vessel sinks on collision with CMA CGM boxship". Seatrade Maritime. 2018-12-26. Retrieved 2021-05-03.
  54. ^ "Crew quickly brings fire under control on CMA CGM-chartered container ship". TradeWinds News. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  55. ^ "Crew member injured in cargo blaze aboard CMA CGM Rabelais". The Loadstar. 8 April 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  56. ^ "CMA CGM's giant vessel loses containers in the Indian Ocean". Container News. 18 July 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  57. ^ "Discharge of damaged boxes on APL Vanda under way at Djibouti". The Loadstar. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2023.
  58. ^ Bray, Julian; Guerry, Yannick (28 November 2023). "Second Israeli-owned ship attacked by Iran-backed forces as shadow war intensifies". TradeWinds. London. Archived from the original on 22 December 2023. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  59. ^ "An Israeli-owned ship was targeted in suspected Iranian attack in Indian Ocean, US official tells AP". AP News. 2023-11-25. Retrieved 2023-11-25.
  60. ^ "Israeli-owned ship hit in suspected Iran drone attack". France 24. 2023-11-25. Retrieved 2023-11-25.

External links edit

  Media related to CMA CGM at Wikimedia Commons